The recent century saw the development of the political ideology of ethnic nationalism, when the concept of race was tied to nationalism, first by German theorists including Johann Gottfried von Herder. Instances of societies focusing on ethnic ties, arguably to the exclusion of history or historical context, have resulted in the justification of nationalist goals. (Billinger, 2007)
100 years of racial and ethnic change in U.S; the shift in racial and ethnic change
Two periods frequently cited as examples of this are the recent century consolidation and expansion of the German Empire and the twentieth century Third (Greater German) Reich. Each promoted the pan-ethnic idea that these governments were only acquiring lands that had always been inhabited by ethnic Germans. The history of late-comers to the nation-state model, such as those arising in the Near East and south-eastern Europe out of the dissolution of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires, as well as those arising out of the former USSR, is marked by inter-ethnic conflicts. Such conflicts usually occur within multi-ethnic states, as opposed to between them, as in other regions of the world. Thus, the conflicts are often misleadingly labelled and characterized as civil wars when they are inter-ethnic conflicts in a multi-ethnic state. (Billinger, 2007)
Is Brown the New Black? Racial and Ethnic Change in America
Struck by the news but not sure of its significance, she jotted down the following on a Post-It note: What does it mean when blacks are no longer at the center of civil rights enforcement? She would carry that note with her for nearly five months, pondering the answer. (Billinger, 2007)
The terms "Black" and "African American", while different, are both used as ethnic categories in the US. In the late 1980s, the term "African American", was posited as the most appropriate and politically correct race designation. While it was intended as a shift away from the racial inequities of America's past often associated with the historical views of the "Black race", it largely became a simple replacement for the terms Black, Colored, Negro and the like, referring to any individual of dark skin color regardless of geographical descent. Likewise, Light-skinned Americans from Africa are not considered "African American". Many African Americans are multiracial. More than half of African Americans also have European ancestry equivalent to one great-grandparent, and 5 percent have Native American ancestry equivalent to one great-grandparent. (Cole, 2000)
A chance meeting with a book on her husband's shelf helped determine how Williams would eventually address that question. In The Politics of Displacement: Racial and Ethnic Transition in Three American Cities (Academic Press, 1980), Peter Eisinger had studied what happened when a black mayor supplanted a white mayor. As Williams read, she began to frame an updated study of her own. (Cole, 2000)
With a team of graduate students, Williams conducted hundreds of interviews in nine American cities, all of which had elected at least one black mayor between 1968 and ...