Reflect Activeengagement

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Reflect Active Engagement

Reflect Active Engagement


Studies have shown that managerial style determines communication flow within organizations indicated that with more than 50 years of research, social scientists have implemented theories on how communication can affect human behaviour. Effective communication is crucial in organizational management and organizations should have effective communication to survive. Many studies have examined vertical communication and leadership styles; few studies have been conducted on lateral communication and leadership styles. Currently, no researcher has established if employee perceptions of transformational leadership styles and lateral communication are correlated.

Theories and analytic models of organizational leadership and communication provide the foundation for planning, executing, and evaluating organizational improvement methods. The major theoretical considerations that influenced this study are theories of input/output persuasion model, theory of reasoned action, and social influence, social comparison, and convergence theories. The input/output persuasion model emphasized “the hierarchy of communication effects and considered how various aspects of communication such as message design, source, and channel as well as receiver (audience) characteristics, affect the behavioural outcome of communication”. The output or dependent variables are response steps mediating persuasion, which behaviours are ranging from attending, comprehending, yielding, behaving, and retaining. The independent communication variables consist of the characteristics of the source, message, channel, receiver, and destination. The input/output persuasion model is significant in explaining the communication styles of employees when faced with certain types of supervisors.


In 1847, the now well-known medical career of Elizabeth Blackwell began as she joined an all-male class at Geneva Medical College. In the years that followed, several medical schools went on to accept women for coeducation, and a number of women's medical colleges were established. In addition to several female sectarian medical colleges, five orthodox medical colleges were established for women, including the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, established by Quakers in 1850, and Women's Medical College of New York Infirmary, established by Blackwell herself (Andrews, 1887,, 1887).

Whereas concerns about inferior training plagued the all-female schools in the 1860s and 1870s, by the 1880s the quality of education available in those settings had risen. Nevertheless most women physicians of this era viewed coeducation as superior to training in the single-sex setting. After The Johns Hopkins University founded in 1892 with a policy of admitting women to the medical school on the same terms as men (thanks to the demands of the wealthy women without whose support the institution could not have opened), most women's medical colleges went on to close their doors. By the turn of the 20th century, women constituted 4% to 5% of the physician population, a level that remained stable for decades to come.

As Regina Morantz-Sanchez (2000) eloquently details in her comprehensive historical analysis of women physicians in American medicine, the early pioneers, were a diverse group:

Organizations need to provide multiple outlets for knowledge sharing. Team members have to access other employees with specific expertise for successful completion of assigned tasks. Intranets create a communication channel to help employees seek out and find information and each ...
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