Renewable And Non-Renewable Energy Resources

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Global Challenges Of Renewable And Non-Renewable Energy Sources, and its Transition Process


Increased international awareness of climate change has increased international collaboration on environmental issues. Most of the industrialised countries have committed themselves to a significant decrease in greenhouse gas emissions up to 2012 in ratifying the Kyoto Protocol. In the light of the UN's Climate Change Conference 2007 held in Bali and the ambitious targets of the European Union for renewable energy, the mitigation of climate change will remain a strong trend over the next few decades. One of the most important means of attaining this goal is to increase the proportion of total energy consumption from renewable energy sources. In addition, efforts to decrease dependence on fossil fuels and to diversify the energy supply are also important factors promoting the use of renewable energy sources.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1: Introduction5

Background of the Study5

Problem Statement6

Purpose of the Study7

Rationale of the Study10

Objectives of the Study11

Framework of the Study11

Organisation of the paper15

Chapter 2: Literature Review16

Corporate Social Responsibility16


Development for Sustainability21

The Ecological Footprint: Industrial Ecology23

Emissions Control26

Waste Management27


Greening the Supply-Chain34


Renewable energy innovation for mitigating climate change38

The Kyoto Protocol41

Annex I countries and emissions targets41

Quantified emission limitation or reduction committments (QELRCs) and assigned amounts42

Emissions trading and joint implementation43

The implications of the Kyoto Protocol for product design and international business Products, standards and verification47

Trade in permits and associated investments48

The Kyoto Protocol, operations management and international technology transfer50

Facilities location50

Process innovation52

International technology transfer58

Political and economic factors62

Political uncertainties, implementation and operations strategy62

Economic uncertainties, implementation and operations strategy67

Chapter 3: Research Methodology69

Scenario planning69

Process approach of the study75

Chapter 4: Findings, Analysis, and Discussion81

Evaluation of the scenarios81

Discussion of the methodology and the scenario process86

Chapter 5: Conclusion90



Politics, economics and operations strategy94

The Kyoto Protocol and sustainability95


Guidelines for Future Research98


Appendix - A110

Global Challenges Of Renewable And Non-Renewable Energy Sources, and its Transition Process

Chapter 1: Introduction

Global supply of energy is facing several increasing challenges. Energy consumption is on a moderate increase, especially in rapidly developing countries. The overall size of the world energy market nearly doubled between 1971 and 2003, driven by rapid expansion in energy use in the developing world, where population and energy activity have grown. The International Energy Agency (IEA) has projected an increase in primary energy demand of 1.6 per cent per year until 2030, when the cumulative increase will be equal to half of current demand. At present, fossil fuels - oil, coal, and natural gas - dominate the world energy economy, providing 80 per cent of the world's primary energy supply of 449EJ/yr (IEA, 2005).

Background of the Study

Biomass is the largest source of renewable energy at present, covering approximately 11 per cent of the world's total energy consumption (IEA, 2005). Several studies have researched the production potential of biomass for energy at local, regional, and global levels (Berndes et al., 2003). Most of the studies estimated that the use of biomass for energy production can be increased considerably from the current level over the current century, when fossil fuels become scarce and more ...
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