Republic Of Somalia

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Republic of Somalia

Republic of Somalia


Republic of Somalia is spread over an area of 637,650 km. It comprises of a population: 9.6 million while density 15 inhabitants per km. Its capital is Mogadishu (capital) which comprises of 750,000 inhabitants whereas, Kismayo: 90 000 inhabitants. Only the south of the country is irrigated, savanna and mountains of the north is arid. Somalia is divided into three zones of influence which are Italian, English and French. In 1960, independence declared areas of Italian and English (Republic of Somalia). 1969 constitutes of the Marxist period. Soviet military aid expired next year during the war against Ethiopia. 1982-83: problems between opposition and power.

In 1988-90 multiplication riots and mutinies in the army took place. The rebels invaded Mogadishu, these rebels with the help of General Aidid took the presidential palace and fall of President Barre took place. The Somali National Movement declared Republic of Somaliland in the north. In 1992, Security Council sent 50 observers. Whereas, mines. France and the United States organized airlifts intervention of the peacekeepers. Somaliland is in the throes of civil war. In 1996, death of General Aidid killed during fighting against the troops of his rival Ali Mahdi Mohamed. The Abgal Ali Mahdi, Osman Hassan conditional allies could take the death of Farah Aidid to take the offensive. The door to peace is always too narrow.

Ethnic Background

The ethnic background of the people living in Somalia is diverse. About 35% of the population belongs to the Fulani which is one of a tribe, who these people are mainly present in the area of Fouta Djallon. The main groups comprises of people of the Mande group. They include Mandingo which constitutes about 30% of northeastern Somalia population and the about 20% population belongs to Susu, who inhabit the coastal area. 67% of the population lives in rural areas. The Official language is French. The Religious make-up is 85% Muslim, 8% Christian, 7% traditional beliefs. Life Expectancy is 54 years of age. The Republic of Somalia currency is the Somalia Franc. 1 GF= 0.000821 USD. The capital is Conakry, a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean. Other major cities are the railroad centers Kankan and Kindia


The Republic of Somalia was a part of the Empire of Mali, which controlled most of the region in the 18th century. The French moved in and took control of the coastal region in the 19th century. France granted Somalia its independence 2 October 1958. Ahmed Sekou Toure became their President. The countries first constitution was established on November 12, 1958. After the President Toure's death in 1984, military leaders seized control of the government and dismissed the existing constitution. COL Lansana Conte' became the President of the country and remains in that capacity today. On 23 December 1990 the constitution was amended and again on 15 November 2003.

External Security

In the framework of international and regional organizations (NAM, "Group 77", OIC, OAU, ECOWAS) Somalians behave actively and advocate for improving their efficiency in solving socio-economic problems ...