The relationship between theory and research lies in their functions. To explain clearly, the initial energy behind research is searching for theory. Without searching for a theory the task research cannot be achieved. The development of theory depends on research and research depends on theory. The relationship between theory and research is dialectic. Theory decides on the type of data to be collected and the results of research provide grounds for theories that are already in place.
The theory in criminal justice is derived from several disciplines. There are two types of classification for criminal justice that provide ways to discuss criminal justice theory.
One is the law breaking classification and the other criminal justice policy. Law breaking refers to why people commit crimes. While criminal justice policy is the response of the institution to law breaking.
Law breaking can be explained according to biological based theories, psychological based theories and sociologist theories. The theory, research and public policy elaborate how crime should be dealt and controlled through the correctly selected public policy. The relationship between theory and research in criminology and criminal justice can be found through the two models, the deductive model and the inductive model. Theories are tested by research in the deductive model while the analysis of data is used to develop theories in the inductive model.
An example of applied is research on criminal justice policy. The results of this applied research are applied to find answers to questions of the response of public and government to crime. Criminal justice theory is important in directing basic research and also in organizing applied research questions. Theory and criminal justice policy come to vibe linked in two different ways. One is that the use of theory is necessary to guide basic research. Second is that programs and policy is similar to hypotheses as both are precise anticipations of reality. The policy programs are expectations of the out coming empirical reality from policy action. This leads to research, policy and theory being related in two ways. These ways are similar. One is that research is configured by theory and research accounts for the development of policy. Second way of relation is that the linkage of theory to policy results in the basis for evaluation. That is, it assesses whether a program is realizing its goal or not. Criminal justice policy helps in guiding public policy and also research.
Crime being an important social phenomenon, most work of the researchers is direct by and is linked to public policy. This form research which is done on criminal justice is an example of applied research. The results of research can be applied to question of public's response to crime.
Theories provide foundation of former knowledge from where to commence work from. Theory is for determining null hypothesis. That can be approved or disapproved through research. The underlying fact is that ideas or theories provide the motivation for research.
Two logical ways link research and social scientific ...