Types of Carbohydrates that can result in Root Caries24
Patient Awareness Pertaining to Root Caries and Food Impact as its Primary Cause25
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY29
Purpose of Using the Qualitative Approach29
The Research Process30
Reliability and Dependability32
CHAPTER 4: EXPECTED OUTCOMES35
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Tooth decay is the disease most prevalent in the world. Until very recently, almost all individuals had experienced this condition at least once in their lives. This infectious disease results in successive demineralization of hard tissues of the tooth. This process results in the longer term, an irreversible loss of substance. The organic acids involved in it are from the bacterial metabolism. Indeed, the oral environment is a rich and diverse ecosystem in which established a complex flora consisting, among others, over 300 bacterial species. A remarkable balance established between the bacterial mass, constantly increasing and constant input, and controlling factors of this mass, they are specific to the oral environment or related to competition between micro-organisms. However, under certain conditions, local defence mechanisms can be crushed and opportunistic growth of certain bacterial species cause diseases of the tooth. Thus the breakdown of microbial homeostasis by an environmental factor (increased intake of fermentable carbohydrates, for example) will lead to the proliferation or the prevalence of cryogenic micro organisms. The micro organisms involved in the caries process belonging to three bacterial genera:
• The group of Streptococcus mutans, implicated in the initiation of the carious lesion;
• The genus Lactobacillus, involved in the progression of the carious lesion;
• The type Actinomyces, particularly involved in root caries.
If tooth decay can not be considered a disease of nutrition, yet it is the result of the effect of an imbalance in the daily intake of fermentable carbohydrates. It's not the overall quantity of sugar ingested is paramount but the frequency of ingestion. A decrease in caries prevalence was observed in industrialized countries. But there are still large variations between populations of different socioeconomic levels. Carious disease remains a public health problem, since 80% of patients are found in 20% of the population. The DMF index allows highlighting the degree of caries in a population. This index is the sum of the number of decayed teeth (C), the number of missing teeth due to caries (A) and the number of filled teeth (O).
Root caries occur when the enamel is exposed as a result of gingival destruction. They are more common in the elderly. In the U.S., it affects 22% of the population.
A histo-pathological classification proposed by Westbook can differentiate levels of decay:
• Decay of enamel;
• Decay without destruction of the dentin;
• Destruction of affected dentin with dentin;
• Decay of pulpal.
Billings has more recently proposed a clinical classification in which he describes four stages: