The world's transportation system has urbanized extremely in the last century. Safety has presumed significance with this fast development. Human factors play an important role in safety; therefore, any provision to improve the safety of transportation system should take human factors into account. For example, fatigue and drowsiness may be the cause of many run-off-the-road crashes, head on collisions, rear end collisions, and collisions with parked vehicles or other stationary objects.
In an effort to reduce run-off-the road crashes and other crash types caused from vehicles deviating from their designated lane, traffic engineers have looked to traffic control devices to aid in their safety mission. Rumble strips is one traffic control device used to reduce run-off- the-road type crashes that might be caused by fatigue, drowsiness, and adverse weather conditions.
Rumble strips are grooves cut or rolled in the pavement that emit a rumble sound when encountered by vehicle tires. Rumble strips are usually installed on the outside shoulder of highways and freeways to reduce run-off- the-road crashes. From published research, we know that shoulder rumble strips are effective in preventing run-off-the-road crashes. In recent times, rumble strips have also been used in the centerline of undivided highways to reduce head-on collisions and other crashes caused by vehicles crossing the centerline. Research is essential to assess the safety advantages of rumble strip pieces utilised on the centerline.
Rumble strips are raised or grooved patterns usually constructed in the shoulders of pavements. The texture of rumble strip pieces is different from the road surface. When a vehicle passes over the rumble strip, a sudden rumbling sound is caused due to the vibration of the vehicle. This alerts the driver that they are leaving the pavement. Rumble strips are also used to warn motorists of upcoming changes like toll plazas, change lanes for a work zone, horizontal curves, stop for a traffic signal or steer back onto the roadway.
Rumble strips are primarily used on freeways, interstate highways, and parkways. In some states rumble strips are installed on two-lane rural roads that have high numbers of single-vehicle crashes.
Rumble strip pieces are furthermore beneficial in directing motorists in rain, fog, snowfall or dust. Highway hypnosis, which is caused by long monotonous stretches of straight freeways, can mesmerize and affect driver concentration. This highway hypnosis is mitigated by the use of rumble strips. The following sections will discuss types of rumble strips, shoulder rumble strips and their effectiveness, centerline rumble strips, and the driving simulator.
Run-off-the-road collides are the most ordinary roadway crash types defined as vehicles leaving the roadway and either turning over or hitting a fixed object. Run-off-the road crashes account for nearly one-third of all fatalities and two-thirds of traffic fatalities in rural areas.
Many state transportation agencies mount shoulder rumble strips all along the voyage lanes of primary roadways in an effort to reduce run-off- the-road crashes. The use of shoulder rumble strips has increased significantly in the last few years fueled by AASHTO's ...