“Minimal Groups” are depersonalized social groups based on random category characteristics among in-group and out-group. Once element of a group, individuals tend to assess in-group members optimistically and out-group members un-constructively (Kitayama & Cohen, 2010).
How does group membership lead to prejudice and discrimination?
In-group affiliates seek to construct combined respect by making social evaluations with other groups. In-group elements make prejudiced judgments with inopportune out-groups to hold up the soundness and legitimacy of their behaviors, beliefs and values. This permits the in-groups to differentiate themselves from elements in the out-group by amplifying their differences and augmenting inter-group borders.
What is modern racism, and how is it studied?
Modern racism has developed from an aggressive detrimental attitude to a more delicate detrimental attitude. This subtle prejudicial conduct has increased to a level that is much harder to distinguish, however, is regarded as more ruthless. It is studied by observing a society in which people belong to a different culture. Modern racism can be observed in the way certain accents are seen and down casted in any culture.
What is stereotype threat, and what are the consequences of stereotype threat?
Originally Stereotype threat defined by Claude Steele and Joshua Aronson in 1995, according to them stereotype threat refers to being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group. Studies have identified many potential mechanisms of stereo type threats, which may include psychological arousal, anxiety and domain identification. Researches show that the serious consequences of stereotype threats are underachievement on educational tasks, self-handicapping strategies, decreased individual values, minimizing the desired choices of line of work that individuals wish to pursue. The long-term outcomes contribute to social and educational inequality (Dovidio, 2010).
Compare and contrast procedural justice and the deterrence theory as explanations for why people obey the ...