The dissolution of the USSR into independent nations began in early 1985. After years of Soviet military buildup at the expense of national development, economic growth at a standstill. Failed attempts to reform a stagnant economy and the success of the Directorate of Inter-Services Intelligence against Soviet forces in the war in Afghanistan led to a general feeling of discontent, especially in the Baltic republics and Eastern Europe East.
Greater political freedoms and social, created by the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, created a bad atmosphere of open criticism of the regime in Moscow. The dramatic fall of oil prices in 1985 and 1986 and the consequent lack of foreign exchange reserves in the years following the purchase of grain profoundly influenced the actions of the Soviet leadership.
Several Soviet Socialist Republics began resisting central control, and increasing democratization led to a weakening of central government. The trade gap progressively emptied the coffers Soviet union, leading to eventual bankruptcy. The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 when Boris Yeltsin came to power after a failed coup that had attempted to overthrow Gorbachev's reformist.
After years of stagnation, the "new thinking" of younger Communist apparatchiks began to emerge. After the death of terminally ill Konstantin Chernenko, the Politburo elected Mikhail Gorbachev to the position of Secretary General of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in March 1985, marking the emergence of a new generation of leaders. Under Gorbachev, relatively young, reformist technocrats, who had begun their careers at the height of the "Stalinization" under Nikita Khrushchev (1958-1964), rapidly consolidated power within the CPSU, providing a new impetus to political and economic liberalization , and the impetus for cultivating warmer relations and trade with the West.
Jimmy Carter had officially ended the policy of detente, financially help the Pakistani President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, who in turn put Division Inter-Services Intelligence in charge of leading the war against the Soviets through training and leader in the fight against Soviet mujahideen movement in neighboring Afghanistan, which served as a pretext for Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, six months later, with the aim of supporting the Afghan government, controlled by the Popular Democratic Party of Afghanistan. Tensions between the superpowers rose during this time, when Carter placed trade embargoes on the Soviet Union and declared that the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was "the most serious threat to peace since the Second World War."
East-West tensions increased during the first term of U.S. President Ronald Reagan (1981-1985), reaching levels not seen since the Cuban missile crisis in Cuba in 1962, Reagan increased military spending U.S. and 7% of GDP. To coincide with the U.S. military buildup, the Soviet Union increased its own military spending and 27% of its GDP and froze the production of civilian goods in the levels of 1980, causing a severe economic downturn in the Soviet economy is no longer. However, it is unclear where the number 27% of GDP comes. This thesis is confirmed by the extensive study on the causes of the collapse of the ...