Speech Deficit Problem

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Part 3- Development of Strategic Recommendations

Part 3- Development of Strategic Recommendations

Speech disorders refers to the problem of actual production of sounds, while a language disorder refers to difficulty understanding or putting words together to communicate ideas. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs), often informally known as speech therapists, are professionals trained to study human communication, its development and its disorders. They hold at least a master's degree and state certification/licensure in the field, and a certificate of clinical competency from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (Clark, 2008)

SLPs to assess speech, language, cognitive-communication, and oral / feeding / swallowing skills to identify a variety of communication problems (articulation, fluency, voice, receptive and expressive language disorders, etc.), and the best way to treat them.

In speech-language therapy, an SLP will work with a child one-on-one, in a small group, or directly in a classroom to overcome difficulties involved with a specific disorder.

Therapists use a variety of strategies, including: (Garnett, 2004)

Language intervention activities: The SLP will interact with a child by playing and talking, using pictures, books, objects, or ongoing events to stimulate language development. The therapist may also model correct pronunciation and use repetition exercises to build speech and language skills.

Articulation therapy: articulation, or sound production, exercises related to the therapist model correct sounds and syllables to the child, often during play activities. The level of play is age-appropriate and related to the child's specific needs. The SLP will physically show the child how to make certain sounds, such as the "r" sound, and may demonstrate how to move the tongue to produce specific sounds.

Oral-motor/feeding and swallowing therapy: The SLP will use a variety of oral exercises — including facial massage and various tongue, lip, and jaw exercises — to strengthen the muscles of the mouth. The SLP also may work with different food textures and temperatures to increase a child's oral awareness during eating and swallowing.

Communication and language issues are one of the core areas of difficulty for individuals with ASDs. Considering the extent of the social deficits they face, this is not surprising. After all, communication, whether verbal and nonverbal, is social. If you tend not to look at your face, if you do not usually pay attention to the human voice, and if you do not usually tune in verbal and nonverbal feedback from other people, it is hard for you to acquire speech and to use it, of course. (Garnett, 2004)

Just as with social issues, there is a range of communication and language difficulty across the autism spectrum. Some individuals with an ASD never speak, behaving as though they are deaf, even though hearing tests show they can hear in the normal range. Some experience significant speech delays or ongoing speech impediments. For another group, a few words or phrases are gained only to be lost during the toddler years - a process called regression. This is a “red flag” for autism, because such a loss is practically unknown in other developmental disorders. It is thought to occur in about 25% ...
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