Strategic Spatial Planning

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Strategic Spatial Planning and Organizational Development

Strategic Spatial Planning and/or Institutional and Organizational Development

Spatial Planning

Spatial plans are plans for land management, showing areas allocated for all sector uses, including industry, agriculture, forestry, conservation and residential uses etc.

Spatial plans allocate land considering Existing land uses, Land suitability and feasibility (bio-physical and socio-demographic environment), The need for conservation and preservation of ecosystem services, The present and future needs of the area's population and administration, National, provincial, district strategies and plans, and Sector strategies and plans (Badami 2005, 175).

Institutional Planning

It is defined as the planning which is used to observe and support the processes of planning and evaluation of an institution. It collects, sorts out and then give the related information to the concerned departments for the effecting processing (Parnell 2004, 389).

Organizational Planning

It is defined as identifying the organization's short and long term goals and objectives and make strategies in order to achieve them. It also includes job descriptions, requirements for employments and skills and alike (Sheikh 2007, 570).

Organizational Development

Organizational development, abbreviated as OD, is a method of making organizations more flexible and effective so that they get the most out of the environment in which they operate. Organizations, whether public, private or governmental, profit or not, are regarded as living organisms, so by continual development. Because they are in a constantly changing environment, organizations can be only one "good strategy” but must show "strategic flexibility" (Harris 2004, 155). The method of organizational development helps organizations strengthen their capacity to develop. Attention is given to system management, human resources, communication system, relationships, vision, values and goals of the organization.

Organizational development is a planned systematic process, which introduces the principles and practices in behavioural sciences organizations with the goal of increasing the effectiveness, individual and the organization, the focus is on organizations and make them work better, i.e. with a total change of system.

Trade-off between Spatial Planning & Institutional Development in Contemporary Cities in the Global South

Fundamental to success is the recognition of the significant trade-offs that occur between conservation and development goals. A variety of tools can be used to tackle the institutional issues and to confront the trade-offs. We close by reflecting on the resilience perspective to natural resource management, and what it has to offer integrated conservation and development initiatives in developing countries (Larbi1996, 100).

Land markets in African cities are characterized by the co-existence of different modes of supply that originate from the different stages of their development. Customary land tenure remains important in many of these cities, although its future is widely disputed. The implications of the co-existence of customary land tenure and state involvement in the land market in peri-urban Accra, where land is rapidly being converted from agricultural to residential use. The land market is shown to be complex and diverse, characterized by a high level of uncertainty and widespread disputes. The strong sense of cultural identity associated with customary land, and the difficulties of introducing major changes to land markets, however, point ...
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