Subject Matter Biology

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Subject Matter Biology

Subject Matter Biology

1. Introduction

Biological diversity is characterised as "the variability among dwelling organisms from all causes including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the environmental complexes of which they are parties; This encompasses diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems "(CBD, 1992). This definition implies that lists types will be sufficient for the description of biological diversity, but the quality of biodiversity is not revealed in the list.

2. methods developing and sustaining biodiversity

The creation and preservation of biological diversity of all kinds are essential for productivity and facilitate the functioning of ecosystems. These include various organisms such as fungi, small mammals and invertebrates (Feest, 2006). Effective conservation of biological diversity of forests, helps maintain ecological processes (e.g., decomposition, nutrient and water cycles, succession, natural regeneration) and ensures high stability of the ecosystem. In order to conserve biodiversity, it is necessary to maintain or boost structures and processes, generating heterogeneity (Halpern and spies, 1995).

3. Key factors of plantation biodiversity

The important parameters biodiversity of forest biodiversity can be identified as key factors that affect (directly or indirectly) biological diversity in forest ecosystems. Primary keys can be categorized under various ecosystem components (as described earlier):

structural (physical characteristics);

composite (Biological component);

Functional (botic/abiotic disturbances factors and management).

Geographical scope (or levels of Government policy) on key factors exist and are crucial for biodiversity assessment. Three levels of geographical scale were examined (Larsson, 2001; Spanos et al., 2006):

national/regional - is the scale of the national survey of forest policy and management);

landscape scale-scale forest habitats and interlinked stages of a stand); and

Bench scales (application forest, a forest regime).

4. Development of signs for biodiversity assessment

The development of indicators to measure biodiversity overview of biodiversity indicators and methodology described in this section. The indicator can be a group of species (e.g. butterflies, macrofungi) structural component or process of biological systems, which insures maintaining critical aspects of biodiversity (Hansson, 1998; Spanos et al., 2006). Indicators can give helpful information on status and trends of biodiversity. When measured, they can demonstrate environmental trends and assess the condition or the quality of an ecosystem. Indicators can be quantitative or qualitative.

5. Conclusions

The three main components of the ecosystem has been widely recognized: composition, structure and functions. These components are essential for forest biodiversity. Key determinants of biodiversity and selected indicators based on the three components that are critical to study and monitor forest biodiversity (Larsson, 2001; Feest, 2006; Spanos et al., 2006; SEBI2010, 2006). General description, analysis and clustering/classification key factors and indicators were presented and as well as generalized lists (tables I, II, III).

Further development of indicators and methodologies, and this can be achieved in three areas (Larsson, 2001; Feest, 2006; Spanos et al., 2006):

expand the national forest inventory and review of forest management plans to incorporate indicators of forest biological diversity;

Introduce satellite monitoring of forest biodiversity (satellite maps/inventory has the advantage of generating data that can be analysed using GIS); and

Development and incorporation of sensitive organisms ...
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