Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) refers to a behavioral disorder exemplified by inattention, impulsivity and motor hyperactivity that makes it difficult and in some cases prevents the normal development and social integration of children. This is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. It is multi-factorial in 70-80% of cases coexists with one or more other disorders (a phenomenon called co-morbidity). The coexistence of more serious disorders symptoms complicates both diagnosis and therapy. They are most frequently associated with oppositional-defiant disorder and conduct disorder, specific learning disorders etc. A specific cause of ADHD is still unknown. There are however a number of factors that may contribute to birth or to exacerbate ADHD. These include genetic factors and social conditions and physical properties of the subject.
There are three main types of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), inattentive type, the hyperactive /impulsive and combined type (there are discussions about the compatibility of the inattentive type and hyperactive). The neurobiological basis for ADHD is thought to be the result of problems with the brain's chemical neurotransmitters, particularly dopamine and nor epinephrine. Recent advancement in technologies (brain scans and imaging studies) has helped to uncover several differences in the brains of people diagnosed with ADHD.
The paper will discuss the case of Matt's in the context of DSM IV, symptoms and related behaviors and suggest a treatment plan.
The case of Matt - Discussion
Although matt infatuated adequate basic academic skills and intellectual skills to cater to the requirements of his schoolwork however, he fails to analyze, control and replicate the complex tasks and devise a solution. This inability creates a problem for matt as highlighted in the case. As per the DSM-IV criteria, the information in the case regarding Matt's case suggests that he has a behavior counting under the umbrella of ADHD (Millichap, 68-70).
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) has become, in recent years, almost a childhood epidemic. Those diagnosed with the disorder exhibit difficulty paying attention, disorganization, impatience, forgetfulness, distractibility, fidgeting, excessive talking, and impulsiveness. Much controversy surrounds ADHD—both in the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder. Treatment of ADHD usually involves medication such as Ritalin® or Adderall®. Recent treatment options take a more holistic approach, focusing on dietary needs and restrictions rather than medications. ADHD first began to receive acknowledgment in 1980 by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III). This diagnosis focused on two types of ADHD: ADHD with hyperactivity and ADHD without hyperactivity (Southall, 18-24). By the time, the DSM-IV came out, psychologists assigned many nuances to the disease. For the initial diagnosis, six of the following nine criteria must be met:
Fails with attentiveness to details or careless mistakes are made in schoolwork, work, or other activities.
Has difficulty maintaining attention to tasks or play activities
Appears to not listen when being directly spoken to
Difficulty following through with directions and fails to complete activities
Often demonstrates difficulty organizing tasks and activities
Avoids or dislikes activities requiring sustained mental focus