The Nicaraguan Revolution and the Central Conflict
In the late 70-nachale, 80-ies when the South American military dictatorships delineated crisis and intensified the struggle for democracy in Central America as a movement against the conservative dictatorships. But here it has acquired the character of a new revolutionary upsurge that led to the victory of the Nicaraguan revolution and the development of the rebel armed action of the revolutionary forces in other countries (El Salvador, Guatemala). In Central America in previous decades, the traditional fabric of society has undergone fewer changes than in the leading group of Latin American countries. Less mature here was a social and political structure of society, entrenching authoritarian forms of government (except Costa Rica). Local dictatorship had more traditional features. Small, weak countries of Central America early in the object of U.S. expansion and is heavily dependent on relationships with North American power. Washington has attached particular importance to protecting its strategic interests in the subregion. It is no wonder that the struggle in Central America has particularly violent and stubborn, a revolutionary character (Bahman, 1986, 15-42).
At the end of the 70 events - 80-ies in Central America have coincided, as it were, superimposed one upon the other two stages of the struggle for transformation. The first of them - the stage of the struggle for the transformation of traditional norms of society, which by the mid-70's in the rest of Latin America, mostly behind us, but here only now, belatedly, has reached the tipping point. Second - stage of the struggle for democratization that swept Latin America in the late 70's - 80 years. Combining both phases led to a combination of the opposing forces of revolution and counterrevolution, while supporters of democracy and authoritarianism, the contradictory interaction itself revolutionary processes with common democratic values. Path to the general democratic changes here paved the revolutionary upsurge (Mulligan, 1991).
Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua. The main event of the revolutionary upsurge in Central America was the victory of the revolution in Nicaragua 1. It was the result of acute contradictions of dependent capitalist development, exacerbated by the existence of a multi-year Somoza family dictatorship (1936 - 1979).
An area of 130 thousand sq. Km, population 3.9 million (1992)
In the 60's - the first half of the 70-ies of Nicaragua was different pace of economic development. GDP in the 60 years of annually grown by an average of 7%, 'and the industry-more than 10%. The urban population in 1960-1979 years. increased from 38.4 to 56.6%. But this development has led to deepening economic disparities. Nicaragua's external debt increased from $ 41 million (1960) to 1,2 billion (1979). Production growth is mainly based on export industries and transnational capital. Formed and strengthened the monopolistic group represented by the Somoza clan associated with TNK and control up to one-third of the national heritage. Somoza clan occupied essentially a monopoly position in the economy and political life. Small and medium capital (a large local capital outside of the Somoza ...