The p53 gene family: Exploring the structure, function, and biological activities and its role in regulation of cell proliferation
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
The gene p53 is usually found in the nucleus of the cells of human body. It is also known as TP53 or the guardian of the genome (Van et al, 2005, pp. 11). The history of investigation of the tumor suppressor gene is a paradigm in the research of cancer (Feng et al 2008, pp. 842). Originally, the parallel lines of epidemiologic, clinical, and basic research on the gene family p53 is converging and the findings of this study will be soon translated into the practice of medicine.
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study will be to explore and review the structure, function, and biological activities of p53gene family. p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in cancer and it is a founding member of a gene family which are instrumental to the regulation of cell proliferation in mammals. Researcher in this dissertation aims to provide insights into the p53 structural complexity, its therapeutic strategies for rescue of the pharmacology of p53 function, and the molecular mechanism of its inactivation in cancer. The gene family p53 emerges as a paradigm for a more general understanding of the effects of disease causing mutation and structural organization of the modular protein (Feng et al 2008, pp. 842).
Background of the study
The long lived organisms have evolved a mechanism to suppress the cancer development. Such mechanisms are termed as tumor suppression mechanisms, and genes controlling such genes are tumor suppressor genes (Balducci & Beghe, 2001, pp. 137). The genes to suppress tumor promotes the development of cancer when they are inactivated or lost .There are a variety of genes which shows the function as tumor suppressors. Out of these two of the most important tumor suppressor pathways are controlled by the TP53 and RB genes that encode the p53 and pRB proteins respectively. If not all most of the cancers in either the p53 or pRB or may be in both of them. The gene of the human p53 is located on a chromosome 17p13.1. This gene is composed of 19,198 nucleotides from the first to the eleventh exon. In the second exon the coding sequence begins where as in the last one it ends. In molecular oncology the P53 is intensively studied. The substantial interest in this gene stems from the fact that most tumors of human have subverted the p53 function of protein.
Significance of the study
During this literature review the knowledge acquired of the scientific advancements will indicate that the p53 protein is involved in a variety of central cellular processes, including the apoptosis (programmed cell death), senescence, chromosomal segregation, genomic stability, cell cycling, DNA repair, and gene transcription (Derry et al, 2001, 591). The p53 gene is a gene that codes for a protein that inhibits the growth and development of tumors (in addition to other functions if this gene is mutated that is, altered in some way by either the ...