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The Renaissance Period- Sir Isaac Newton

The Renaissance Period- Sir Isaac Newton

Specific Accomplishment

All the work of the early scientists became the pieces which came together to create the most important document of the Renaissance; in 1687 AD, Isaac Newton published the Philsophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philsophy), known as the Principia. Newton developed the Islamic algebra into the most advanced mathematics yet produced - calculus - and used it to compute numerical data from his experiments and the work of others. From all this data he distilled three simple laws of motion which could be used to generate the results of the experiments he studied.

Context

Isaac Newton affected the science of the Renaissance. Newton made many different discoveries. Some of his most famous discoveries are the discoveries of optics, gravitation, mechanics and Calculus. Another discovery he made in science is that he discovered that white light is made up of different colors. The colors are just like the colors in a rainbow. Newton discovered this by passing light through a glass prism. Newton also studied other parts of science. For example he spent some time studying the speed that sound travels through air. (Bechler, 2009)

In the Renaissance people always thought everything in space revolves around the Earth, but after Newton designed a new type of telescope with reflecting mirrors everything changed. He discovered that everything in the solar system revolves around the sun. Another discovery Newton made that is related to the Earth is the discovery of gravity. Newton discovered that the force of gravity is what keeps objects on the ground. During the years 1665-1666 Newton wrote a book on gravity.

Goals

Specifically, Newton demonstrated mathematically three fundamental laws which underlie the movement of everything, from a ball rolling across the floor to the Moon moving through the heavens; it was the birth certificate of science as we know it today. Isaac Newton was also one of the founders of the Royal Society, an English "club" of gentlemen devoted to these principles and methodologies. The organization of scientists into formal groups which despite their personal infighting were dedicated to the institutional advancement of science became an important model for the future. (Bardi, 2006)

Newton did not publish his findings until 1687. Yet evidence shows that Newton discovered his theories of fluxional calculus in 1665 and 1666, after having studied the work of other mathematicians such as Barrows and Wallis (Struik, 1948). Evidence also shows that Newton was the first to establish the general method called the "theory of fluxions" was the first to state the fundamental theorem of calculus and was also the first to explore applications of both integration and differentiation in a single work (Struik, 1948). Newton, who was often reluctant to publish his writing, was finally coaxed into printing up his work with the urging of his mathematician friends. This proved too little too late for his most beloved creation, calculus. Although he had discovered calculus in 1666, he did not publish its description ...

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