The Values Of Single Middle Aged Women In Hong Kong

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The values of Single Middle Aged women in Hong Kong



I would take this opportunity to thank my research supervisor, family and friends for their support and guidance without which this research would not have been possible.


I, , declare that the contents of this dissertation/thesis represent my own unaided work, and that the dissertation/thesis has not previously been submitted for academic examination towards any qualification. Furthermore, it represents my own opinions and not necessarily those of the University.

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Table of Contents


Purpose of the Study2

Problem Statement2

Background of the Problem3

Research Question6

Aims and Objectives of the Study6




Sample and data collection30





Chapter 1: Introduction

Purpose of the Study

In Hong Kong as in many societies throughout history, single women are regarded as a “deficit” or “deviant” identity that requires justification. “Middle-aged women”(Chung Nui in Cantonese), is a new term to describe 30-45 year old, single women in Hong Kong. The term “middle aged women” is relative to adolescent girls and old women. In the past, “middle aged” referred to those over 40. But it is now applied to the younger age of 30 years old. Those women in their 30s are now bearing the title “3S”, seventies (born in 70's), single and stuck. Another term which describes these women is “loser dog” (makeinu in Japanese), implying they are losers yet they are successful in work, earning high salaries since they are single.

Do these middle-aged / “loser dogs” have no “value” in society if they do not get married? No, on the other hand, they are the “targets” of cosmetic products and slimming products; they are the main consumers groups of cosmetic products. The advertisers seize the need of these women, through strategies and tactics of advertisements to sell their products. The hidden desires of these “middle-aged women” can be found easily thoughout the ads, which are that they don't want to age but long for a male companion or affirmation by males.

With the aging baby boomers, and their desire to forever maintaintheir youthfulness and good looks, it is no wonder that the U.S. is the largest market in the world for cosmetics and France is the biggest exporter (Kumar, 2005). However, in recent years, growth in this industry has shifted from the Western hemisphere to developing regions in South America, Eastern Europe, and Asia (Kumar, 2005). For example, Hong Kong reported a 10.4 percent growth in this product category during the past five years (Kumar, 2005). Overall, the cosmetic and fragrance industry have performed well in recent years with average growth of almost five percent across each industry irrespective of the economic crises experienced around the world over the past few years (Kumar, 2005).

Problem Statement

Gender stereotyping refers to one of the most common tactics used by the media to generalize female and male characteristics, personalities and attributes. Although the image of women depicted in Hong Kong media seems to be relatively more positive than the past, gender stereotypes ...
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