Theoretical Basis Of Prof Nursing Practice

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Theoretical Basis of Prof Nursing Practice

Theoretical Basis of Prof Nursing Practice


Nursing has been the most developing profession since the last few years with its market increasing from west and now also have reached east. The profession is highly challenging and demanding in every region of the world. Once the demand of any profession increases, its sub roots also started to develop. Similarly this is the case with nursing as well. As its demand and challenges has been increased new theories and new sciences have been introduced as well explaining its importance and Role in the modern world. The study is done to collect those theories and analyze their importance.


As defined by Barnum, nursing theories describe the phenomenon (process, event or occurrence) called nursing.” Nursing theory serves to differentiate nursing from other disciplines & activities by serving the purposes of describing, predicting, explaining & controlling preferred consequence of nursing care practices. These theories provide a means of testing knowledge through research & for nursing, expanding its knowledge base to meet healthcare needs of patients in an ever-changing society. Nursing theories focuses on the phenomena of nursing & nursing care.

Four Major Concepts of Nursing:

Person (patient/client)




The theories of nursing, on a broader perspective are divided into general theories, system theories and interpersonal/caring theories and are named according to the theorist who devised the theory:


Florence Nightingale

Virginia Henderson

Martha Rogers

Sr. Callista Roy

Dorothea Orem

Betty Neuman

Imogene King

Dorothy Johnson


ROY'S adaptation theory

Nueman's Health Care systems Model

Johnson's Behavioral System Model

King's Goal attainment theory


Peplau's interpersonal interaction Theory

Leininger's Transcultural Care Theory

Watson's Philosophy & Science of Caring

Description of different nursing theories

Abraham Maslow's Needs Theory

According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, each individual possess a characteristic, unique in his own self, but some needs are general to all people. A need is described as something that is wanted, useful or necessary. Human needs are actually the physiologic or psychological conditions that are required by an individual and must be achieved to maintain a state of health or well-being. These include:

Level 1: The Physiological Needs

Level 2: Security and Safety Needs

Level 3: Belongingness and Love Needs

Level 4: The Self Esteem

Level 5: The Self Actualization

Characteristics of basic human needs

Needs are universal.

Priorities may be altered.

Needs may be met in different ways.

Needs may be deferred.

Needs are interrelated.

Needs may be stimulated by external & internal factors.

Florence Nightingale

Goal of Nursing

According to Nightingale the goal of nursing is to improve “the body's reparative processes” by maneuver the client's environment, which is now known as Environmental Theory.


Patient's environment is influenced to include management of noise, hygiene, nutrition, hope, comfort and light.

Environment factors that influence health are:

Pure water

Pure air

Light-direct sunrays

Efficient drainage


Virginia Henderson 1955

Henderson defined nursing as a unique profession of the nurse in supplementing the individual, in carrying out tasks that supplement the health, or its revival.

Goal of Nursing

According to Henderson, goal of nursing is to work autonomously providing assistance to other health care providers, helping patient to get free from the disease, quickly as possible, helping patient that weekning their ...
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