Theories Of Psychology

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Trends in Theories of Psychology

Trends in Theories of Psychology

Manstead, A. (2011), “The benefits of a critical stance: A reflection on past papers on the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior”, United Kingdom: British Psychological Society.

The Theory of Reasoned Action is an important contribution to the study of human behavior. It provides a comprehensive research model that takes into account other factors, which other theories consider in isolation. In addition, it also provides a methodology for research. The theory is an alternative, which involves significant aspects of relationship between attitudes, beliefs, social pressure, intentions and behavior. The actions depend on individuals' attitudes, so a theory of action is essentially a description of the attitudes. The information, which allows the cognitive formation, affects human behavior.

The author reflects on the past papers published in the British Journal of Social Psychology (BJSP), which played significant roles in the development of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). In addition, the author focuses on seven papers that fell into five categories. These categories are (1) those that critique the TRA/TPB for taking inadequate account of social factors; (2) those that critique the models due to the number of habitual social behaviors; (3) those that critically examine the construct of perceived behavioral control; (4) those that argue for the importance of affective factors, which appear to be overlooked in the TRA/TPB; and (5) those that argue for the importance of studying the role of moderating factors and interaction effects in the TRA/TPB. Finally, the author concludes that BJSP's traditional focus on criticism and theory development is one that benefits the journal and the field (Manstead, 2011).

Sannino, A. (2011), “Cultural-historical activity theory and interventionist methodology: Classical legacy and contemporary developments”, Theory & Psychology.

Vygotsky introduced the cultural-historical approach in psychology. He considered personal development as a cultural construct, which works through socialization with adults in a given culture through shared social activities. Throughout the cultural-historical psychology, the concept of 'activity' is crucial and has a distinctive meaning. It pertains to the 'social activities' and shared practices. It is a symbolic exchange and uses cultural tool for mediation. Activity occurs in the creation of meaning and integrates the practical, emotional, relational and cognitive factors. The concept of 'activity systems', is even more comprehensive and difficult to find in modern societies (where all activities are planned), while activities correspond well with home and community-traditional work.

The author discusses the increasing interest in cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and its ability to encourage change in work and educational practices through research interventions. The influence for research interventions in CHAT is the rich heritage of the works of Vygotsky and other classic authors. There is special emphasis on Vygotsky's epistemic reasoning in “The Historical Meaning of the Crisis in Psychology” and to his focus on the use of an indirect method in psychological investigations. In “The Historical Meaning of the Crisis in Psychology,” Vygotsky established a program for the development of psychological theory and ...
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