Topic: The Management Of A Criminal Justice Program

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Topic: The Management of a Criminal Justice Program

Topic: The Management of a Criminal Justice Program

Crime prevention strategies have a long history of success and have been an integral part of the criminal justice system in the United States, Canada, and Europe, they are not common in developing countries. However, these strategies have been gaining acceptance in many developing nations. While the United Nations (UN) can be credited with many of the most successful initiatives and programs, it is by no means the only international player. Some of the credit for the paradigm shift in international crime prevention can be attributed to contributions from nongovernmental organizations and local governments. Both have played a critical role in bringing about the change. (Bazemore, 1999)

Community Policing

Community policing “reforms” have sought to provide the police with greater public acceptance and political grounding. These reforms were created over time and came together in the 1990s under the umbrella of “community policing” (which is also called community-oriented policing). At that time, it had become clear that other 20th-century police efforts—the “wars” waged by the police on crime, drugs, and youth participation in violence—were not working as intended. Herman Goldstein, arguably the architect of modern community and problem-oriented policing, suggested that the police often emphasized means over ends—that is, arrest over community safety, or the number of calls for service responded to as opposed to the underlying problems that produced the need for those responses. This means-ends inversion resulted in the police and the public talking past one another, with the police concentrating on effort and the public on effect. (Bazemore, 1999)

Effectiveness of Community Policing

This question has proved difficult to answer. During the 1980s and 1990s and into the 21st century, when there was considerable investment in community policing strategies, programs, and tactics, there was not a corresponding rigor in the assessment of these efforts. In some ways the advocacy for community policing approaches outstripped thorough analysis of the consequences and impacts of such a strategy shift for the police. (U.S. Attorney General, 2005)

Future of Community Policing

Early in its development, community policing was criticized as being more rhetoric than reality. As community policing was first promulgated as a “philosophy” rather than a coherent set of practices, shifts in rhetoric associated with a changing policing world substantially preceded intended and actual changes. In the early stages of its development, and indeed continuing well into the 21st century, community policing was seen as an “umbrella concept” incorporating concerns for community engagement, proactive policing, and problem solving. (Tomz, 1997)

Restorative Justice

Programs such as restorative justice have become increasingly popular with juvenile offenders; however, they are also used with some adult offenders. These programs have helped increase awareness within the correctional field of the needs of victims as well as their important role within correctional programs. While restorative justice is becoming an important way for correction officials to work with victims, other victim-centered programs have also ...
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