Hofstede and Trompenaars, get data from the questionnaires were distributed among professionals - in the case of Hofstede among IBM employees, and in the case of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, among a large number of executives from different organizations (Daniels , 2003). Hofstede's work is based on a questionnaire originally designed to assess the values of work and, as expected, focuses primarily toward that end. Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner through questionnaires asked respondents preferred to conduct a number two situations of work and leisure. What both studies have in common is that both in the questionnaires, the focus is on the final goal state, and that the underlying values are derived from a series of questions about the outer layers of the onion culture (Taylor , 2006)
This approach provides both research approaches a very practical flavor. However, while the underlying value claims are often the result of very little data, or derived from a limited number of questions. This has at least the potential to significantly alter the value of forecasts. You can also hide certain dimensions or values may be erroneously derived because of certain influences of the situation to the respondents. Examples include the notion that Italy is considering the data of Hofstede, a culture of individualism, or that the French respondents show a preference for universalism in the questionnaire response Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner and particularism in all other responses. Such unexpected findings clearly suggest the influence of situational variables or other possible problems in the application of data derived (Schuler, 2003).
Hofstede's cultural framework has been applied in a wide variety of contexts, through most (if not all) of the disciplines of behavioral sciences. For example, in the fields of management and marketing, Hofstede's framework has been used to examine issues such as cultural differences in attitudes and behaviors (Alden, Hoyer, and Lee, 1993), identification of the organization and the intentions of employee turnover (Abrams, Ando, and Hinkle, 1998) and compare stereotypes across different cultures (Soutar, Grainger, and Hedges, 1999). It has been applied in studies of advertising (McCarty and Hattwick 1992, Gregory and Munch, 1997; Zandpour et al 1994), the global brand (Roth 1995) and ethical decision-making (Vitell, Nwachukwu, and Barnes, 1993; Blodgett et al. 2001).
Contents of the Distance: The PDI dimension deals with how inequality and hierarchy are accepted in the culture. Is the fact that individuals are not equal to other forms of physical and intellectual. Countries with high PDI increased inequality and signs of status and wealth are evident. There is a gap between subordinates and superiors, and consider others as unequal. Subordinates tend not to initiate contact with their superiors and often wait for instructions (Liu, 2004).
Low PDI countries tend to minimize inequalities and subordinates and superiors view each other as equals. There is a higher rate of interaction and communication with subordinates often express their ideas to superiors.