User Centred Design

Read Complete Research Material


User Centred Design

Table of Content


User Centred Design5

Prototype Report5


Persona Creation5

Information Architecture8

Graphic User Interface Design10

Characteristics of Web Site Development13

Conclusion and Further Work14


Research Paper17




Visual Design23

Information Architecture25






Most Malaysian tourism website designs are text-heavy. They deliver information but reflect little regard for usability. Malaysian web designers and developers are unaware of the importance of user-centred web designs necessary in order to promote cultural tourism. This paper details the development of a Penang cultural tourism website prototype that employs a user-centred design approach. The website aims to disseminate information about the multicultural traditions of Penang, which includes the performing arts, crafts and festivals. In the use of personas, this article seeks to examine the effectiveness and functionality of web pages and subsequently develop a Penang cultural tourism website prototype.

User Centred Design

Prototype Report


The World Tourism Organisation (WTO) defines cultural tourism as the “movements of persons for essentially cultural motivations such as study tours, performing arts and cultural tours, travels to festivals and other cultural events, visits to sites and monuments, travels to study nature, folklore or art, and pilgrimages”. Cultural tourism tends “to raise the cultural level of the individual ... giving rise to new knowledge, experience and encounters” (WTO 1985). For this reason, the development of a Penang cultural tourism website should focus on a wider perspective regarding user requirements. More importantly, it should enhance the user experience with web browsing so that the user can experience first-hand a variety of cultural events and activities of the society even before he/she visits the tourist destination. This paper focuses on a user-centred design approach in which personas were used to identify the needs of the user. Through the user task analysis, the research team developed the first prototype of the website. Jacob Nielsen's (1994) usability heuristics were applied as guidelines for the user interface design and usability testing approach.

Persona Creation

All designs should be initiated according to a comprehensive understanding of the users' characteristics (Schneiderman 1998). These include a user's demographic profile, education, training, motivation, goals and personality. In the development of this website, personas were used to create archetypal characters that would correspond with groups of real target web users in terms of their goals and personal characteristics (Calabria 2004). These prototypes help to guide decisions about the functionality and design of the website. The technique was popularised by Alan Cooper (1998) in his book.

The Inmates Are Running the Asylum. Personas are more appropriate in the context of web development for cultural tourism, as they provide insights into what makes a website work best as well as how it can best be designed. They also assimilate the behaviour and experiences of the users browsing the web. Personas were created by using Donald Norman's (2004) 'Ad-Hoc Personas' approach. Interviews with and observations of the stakeholders were carried out to identify the target user group. Later, the group was narrowed down to specific characters based on their goals, patterns and needs. Four groups of target users were identified by the design ...