Victimology is the study of the crime, in this study we examine the relationship between the victim and offender. Victimology also involves the study of the victim and the crime justice system. Crime justice system includes police, police and any other organization associated to criminal justice system. It can be explained here, that Victimology is not limited to the study, of the crime and crime offenders, it also discusses the all the human rights violation.
According to the criminology or in another term criminal law, all the individuals who have been harmed directly by the perpetrator, are considered as a victim of a crime. It is good to make it clear that it is not a broad definition, a victim of professional crime effectively deny and don not accept their status.
There are many differences in the definition of the Victimology among criminologists. This topic even become more controversial when we discuss women's right.
This field of study is relatively new, and it has originated in 1940's. The crime victim's movement started in the early 1960's, and it has changed to a respected social movement. This movement has a great impact on the legislation across the nation.
As it has been discussed earlier victimologists also covers the right of the crime victim, according to the victimologists, victims exactly should be treated fairly within the judicial system. The United states of America have the highest rate of crime in 1960. In 1966, both President's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice were established and in the same year government conducted a survey of crime.
The result indicated higher crime rate statistics than the crime rate statistics published by law enforcement. It also has been seen that most of the respondents showed an unwillingness to take part in the survey due to lack of confidence. This research caused researchers study crime victims.
In the 1970s, the women movement started, and this movement tried to focus on the victim of domestic, and sexual assault. Before that movement, domestic violence was just a family matter. Law enforcement were involving in just extreme cases. Sexual assault was considered as taboo women movement took required steps to bring all these issues into the open.
First rape crisis centers were established in 1972. Rape crisis centers were opened one in San Francisco and the other one opened in Washington.
The women's movement in the United States has undergone different stages since its beginnings in the nineteenth century. At the turn of the century, the movement expressed concern about establishing the legal rights of women to own property and to vote (Largen, 1981). Later it concerned itself with the equal employment and educational opportunities for women (Pride, 1981). By the early 1970s, objectives of the women's movement had expanded to include concerns over the health care delivery system and criminal justice system . From these later concerns two movements emerged--the self- health care movement and the antirape movement (Largen, 1981; Pride, 1981). Concerns about the treatment of survivors of sexual assault became a ...