West Nile

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West Nile Virus

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West Nile Virus


People spending time outdoors are largely exposed to mosquito bites and stings. They are most likely to be victimized by the annoyance of insects. The ceaseless buzz of mosquitoes is a warning signal of the impeding bite by the deadly creatures. These bites are considered as the price paid by the people for enjoying a bit of fresh air, gardening, or attending a sporting event. There have been increasing instances reported due to deadly virus, and unfortunately, the deadly mosquito bite is bringing in West Nile Virus.


Discovery, Origin and Spread

The initial traces of West Nile were seen around 1000 years ago and were developed into two distinct lineages. Lineage 1 and its associated multiple profiles are responsible for epidemic transmission including Africa and throughout the world whereas lineage 2 was considered to be as Africa Zoo nose, it was initially reported only in horses in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar. West Nile virus was examined as one of the probable causes of Alexander the Great's early and unexpected death.

West Nile virus has emerged from, and is named after a region; the Nile district of Uganda in 1937. The virus has been found in Africa, Europe, and the Middle East from its initial discovery. West Nile is infectious among mosquitoes, birds, horses, and humans (Cunha, n.d). The virus itself is spread and caused by mosquitoes but a mosquito itself can be infected if it bites species that already have been in contact with the virus. It can be deadly since the mosquito will further pass it to humans or horses. The virus was recognized as a cause of deadly disease in 1957 when elderly parents were victimized with meningitis or encephalitis (inflammation of brain and spinal cord). The incident spread the disease throughout the world and most specifically in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia. The virus did not affect North America till 1999 but then it made its way to North American including 47 other states (Soverow et al, 2009). In 2001, it was reported in Canada and discovered in dead birds and mosquitoes in Southern portion of Toronto, Ontario and also other provinces; Quebec, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. The virus of the tropical and temperate regions has a history of killing animals and humans and no proper vaccine has yet been discovered.


West Nile Virus is family member of Flaviviridae and is mainly recorded to affect birds. People victimized by this virus are reported not to have any symptoms which are a prime concern for medical science throughout the world. Recent studies by scientists that people also get infected through blood transfusions and organ/tissue transplants but there seems no evidence that the virus is contagious and can spread through physical contacts such as by kissing, or touching someone who is infected with the disease. Populace with comparatively weak or poor immune system or those having fever white blood cells are more exposed to the deadly disease. Also, Symptoms can include fever, ...
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