Despite the emergence of alternative cinemas and new developments in technology, Hollywood still dominates, mainly because of its skill in manipulating verbal pleasure -- 'mainstream film coded the erotic into the language of the dominant patriarchal order. Thus erotic pleasure and the central place of the image of women need to be analysed. This research analyses the image portrayal of Woman in film based on Gender and sexuality. This research attempts to establish that the transition of women image to strong females is the result of male gaze and voyeurism not because women have gained dominance and power in the media. The research predominantly analyses the views of feminist Mulvey and other critics. Table of Contents
Purpose of the Study5
Background of the Problem7
Aims and Objectives of the Study8
Significance of the Study9
Dyer & the importance of Stars and Star Theory14
Voyeuristic Look and Culture22
Voyeurism in Tomb Raider and Kill Bill24
Structured Literature Review32
Selecting search engines33
Identification of the Sources of Information33
Literature Selection Criteria34
Justification of the number of articles selected35
ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION36
Purpose of the Study
In the early 1900s, when the invention of film was in its early stages and in its 'silent' era, it was not generally thought of as a serious business. During this time, women were a success at every level of filmmaking, as directors, producers, editors, and writers. From copyrighting records in the Library of Congress, there is evidence that almost half of all films produced between 1912 and 1915 were made by women. However, with the development of the 'talkies' around the 1930s, the film industry began to flourish and was taken over by large studios who recognized its money making possibilities, and who gave little opportunities to women other than in performing roles(Kilbourne 2007).
Today, more women control different aspects of film production, although they still make up a very small percentage of the industry. The 'Celluloid Ceiling' study, carried out by Martha M. Lauzen at San Diego State University, summarises the employment of women in behind-the-scenes roles in the top 250 films of 2001. The study included the discovery that 22% of the films employed no women at all in behind-the-scenes roles. Women also comprised only 19% of all executive producers, producers, directors, writers, cinematographers and editors in the top 250 films. By comparing the figures of women's employment on the top 100 films of 1987 with those of 2001, it can be seen that there has been only a 1% increase. In the 75 year history of the Academy Awards, only two women have ever been nominated for the Best Director Oscar, Lina Wertmüller for 'Seven Beauties' in 1976 and Jane Campion for 'The Piano' an 1993, and neither of them won. This suggests that males within the industry resent being directed by women, which could be why so little opportunities are opened up to women(Fredrickson Roberts 2007).
The role of the director in the representation of women in film is of ...