Animal Testing

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Animal Testing



Case for Animal Testing4

Issues with Animal Testing5

Concerns of Using Animals in Research5

Scientific Limitations of Using Animals5

Alternatives to Animal Testing7



Animal Testing


Animal testing is one of the most contentious issues, raising some of the most heated discussions. More than twenty-five million animals, according to the Humane Society of the United States, are used in testing, research and education every year (Watson, 2009). Researchers, at times, conduct experiments on animals so as to understand biology more completely. Animal experimentation has a lengthy and productive history in biological research, especially in biomedicine. For instance, in the 1960s, Thomas E. Starzl- the organ transplant pioneer carried out his early surgical transplantation experiments on dogs before attempting them successfully on humans. Psychiatrist John Cade made experimentation with guinea pigs the 1940s, coming with the discovery that manic-depressive patients are aided by lithium. Many animals are used today for various purposes in experimental science. While primates or other animals are used in some studies, more than 90 percent of studies involve rats and mice, for experiments from cancer research to immunological projects. Though the importance of animal research cannot be denied for the advancement of biomedical science; however, it is felt by some activists that animals should not be used as experimental subjects (Quigley, 2002). Using animals as "research tools" or "living specimens" is not moral, according to them. In addition, no species can serve as reliable biological model for another. This essay aims to shed light on different perspectives of animal testing.


Case for Animal Testing

Animals and human are considered to have many similarities in between them and this is the main reason for the preference of researchers to use animals as guinea pig or as a case in their researches and studies. These studies help researchers to find out that how certain chemicals, medicine, cosmetics and other products can affect on human beings. According to the Humane society of the United States, every year the number of animals used in the areas of education, research and product safety and testing exceeds twenty five million. While researching for the symptoms of a disease and its treatment, virus or some bacteria are induced in to these animals so that they got affected with the disease then the medical researchers provide different medicine and apply various therapies to evaluate that treatment of the respective disease. Knockout mice are also used in the medical research. They are called so as their genes are muted or knocked out and as a result mice changed their traits. The changed genes could be a cause of diabetes, cancer and heart diseases among them. Researchers then find out the possible ways to treat the above said diseases (Cohen. and Regan, 2001)

Animal tissues are also used by scientists for producing treatments like medicines or vaccines etc. for e.g. Insulin could be made by utilizing the hormone taken from cows and pigs' pancreas. All the above discussed benefits obtained by Animal experimentation make a point for its supporters who believe that animal experimentation ...
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