Bio Module - Genetics & Heredity

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Bio Module - Genetics & Heredity

Bio Module - Genetics & Heredity

The Probability Regarding Dimples

The combination of genes expressed itself in the traits of a person. There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in a single cell of a fertilized egg. In each pair of chromosomes, one dominant and one is recessive dimples are present. The combination determines the characteristic of a person. Recessive genes are expressed only when the other is recessive gene too. The presence of a dominant gene means that a dominant feature will emerge.

Explanation of Epistasis

Epistasis is the type of gene interaction in which one gene suppresses the action of another nonallelic gene. When dominant epistasis acts as an inhibitor of the dominant gene (often it tied for second in the pair and denoted by the letter J, recessive j, and with recessive epistasis - recessive. In dominant epistasis in crosses heterozygotes have two types of splitting: 12:3:1, 13:3. The concept of epistasis was presented by Bateson (1909) to explain distortions of Mendelian segregation. During the first decades of the twentieth century, many studies aimed to study certain types of inheritance quantitative traits, providing substantial knowledge to different patterns of segregation that indicated presence of epistasis (Michael, 2010).

Steps of Mitosis

Mitosis is the cell division process by which a eukaryotic cell originates in ordered sequence of steps, two daughter cells and chromosomal genetically identical. It is customary to divide this process into two stages: the first related to the formation of two daughter nuclei and the second corresponding to division of cytoplasm. However, it is didactically detailed in four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase (Stein, 2004).

Role of mRNA in the Synthesis of Proteins

It is known as the protein synthesis process by which new proteins are composed from the twenty amino acids. In narrow process, DNA is transcribed into RNA. Protein synthesis is performed by ribosomes located in the cell cytoplasm. In the process of synthesis, amino acids are transported by transfer RNA for each amino acid corresponding to the messenger RNA which binds to the appropriate position to form new proteins. Protein synthesis or translation occurs on ribosomes in the cell cytoplasm. Amino acids are transported by transfer RNA (tRNA) specific to each of them, and brought to the messenger RNA (mRNA), where they mate codon and anticodon this transfer RNA by base complementarity, and in this way are placed in their proper position.


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