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Biomes are complex environmental systems, the extensive geographical reach, consisting of a set of ecosystems, where plant and animal communities have achieved, in a specific area of ??the earth's surface, a relative stability in relation to environmental conditions. Each biome is characterized mainly by climatic conditions of the region and particular vegetation that is home to a typical fauna with animals.

Kinds of Biomes


There are two kinds of terrestrial biomes: arctic tundra and alpine tundra. The arctic tundra occupies about 20% of the land and extends in a broad band between the Arctic ice cap and the boreal forest to coniferous trees, at latitudes between 75 ° and the Arctic Circle (66 ° 33 'N). The climate is characterized by a very short summer season (40-50 days); at temperatures between 0 and 10 ° C during the rest of the year temperatures are always below zero, touching -70 ° C. The winds are always intense and very little rainfall. It is therefore not possible the growth of tall trees, but only a low vegetation, consisting mostly of lichens, mosses, sphagnum and dwarf willows (Rana, 2009). In summer, the tundra is populated by animals from the more southern regions (reindeer, foxes, arctic hares, ermines, partridges, etc.). The larger proportion of the fauna consists of insects, which are an environment favorable to their development in the vast marshes which cover the ground in the summer. The alpine tundra, very similar to plant associations in the Arctic, is located at high altitudes, corresponds to the limit of vegetation, and alpine meadows, down to the bare rocks or glaciers.

The forests

The forest is a large area of ??tall trees. The coniferous forest, also called taiga, occupies a band of about 1500-2000 km from the Arctic Circle, the lower limit of the tundra, and the 50th parallel north, the North American continent and Eurasia. The climate is characterized by a hot summer and a very cold winter season. As vegetation dominates the gymnosperms evergreen (fir, pine) and deciduous (larch), with rather sparse undergrowth, the most characteristic animals are the moose, wolf, and squirrel and grouse (Rana, 2009).

The deciduous forests of temperate weather cover part of America Northeast Asia, Central Europe, Japan and Australia and part of the southern tip of South America. The climate is characterized by mild temperatures and abundant rainfall evenly distributed. The dominant vegetation consists of deciduous hardwood, such as beech, chestnut, oak, with dense undergrowth. Characteristic animals include deer, wild boar, lynx, and many species of birds.

Tropical forests include various types of forests in the region between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. The climate of these regions is characterized by a rainfall in excess of 200 cm of rain per year, well distributed in the seasons (often with the alternation of one or more dry seasons). It is the terrestrial environment that is home to the greatest number of species (biodiversity), with many species of animals (especially insects and birds) and plants, especially tall trees, broad-leaved evergreen (Rana, 2009).


Ecosystems is also dominated by associations of herbaceous plants ...
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