Critical Discourse Analysis And Conversation Analysis

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Critical Discourse Analysis and Conversation Analysis: Question 2 (a)


Definition of Critical Discourse Analysis3

Purpose of Critical Discourse Analysis4

Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis4

Analytical Category of Critical Discourse Analysis5

Definition of Conversation Analysis6

Purpose of Conversation Analysis6

Method of Conversation Analysis7

Analytical category of Conversation Analysis8

Examples show how CDA and CA can be applied to different texts9

CDA Instances9

CA Instances10

A Critical Account of CDA and CA10


Critical Discourse Analysis and Conversation Analysis: Question 2 (a)


This paper intends to talk about Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and Conversation Analysis (CA), by clearly stating the purposes, methods, and analytical categories of these two types of discourse analysis. Moreover, we will also cover the examples that will portray how CDA and CA can be applied to different texts. Lastly, we will present a critical account of CDA and CA, in which we will identify the strengths and weaknesses of both analyses.

Definition of Critical Discourse Analysis

CDA “Critical discourse analysis” is a kind of discourse analytical study that chiefly investigates social inequality, neglect, and dominance that enacts and resists by 'talk and text' under the political and social context. With such dissenting investigation, the analyst of critical discourse holds clear position and thus wants to expose, understand, and eventually oppose social inequality. Few decades before, CDA focused on 'critical linguistics', which emerged mainly in Australia and United Kingdom. Moreover, CDA also plays key role in "critical" developments in the fields of psychology, sociolinguistics, and social sciences.

The main tenets of CDA summarized by Fairclough and Wodak are s follows:

Critical discourse analysis addresses social issues

Power associations are dianoetic

Discourse establishes culture and society

Discourse also does ideological work

Discourse is diachronic

The connection between society and text is mediated.

The Discourse analysis is explanatory and interpretative

It is a kind of social action

Purpose of Critical Discourse Analysis

The purpose of CDA is to uncover the issues associated with domination and power concerned with the release of senses to open the space, where people can understand the ideology of dominance and escape them from cruel discourse. This kind of aim is known as dissident research, in which it indicates to understand, reveal, and oppose social inequality.

Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis

Van Dijk (2000) acknowledges that critical discourse analysis does not contain any methodology because it is simply contained mutual perspective of many approaches instead of only one school of thought. CDA simply sets out few helpful skills in critically analyzing the written material. The major principle of critical discourse analysis is that the way we say and write is not random, but it is essential to understand the purpose whether the choices are unconscious or conscious.

Moreover, CDA can also concentrate on the symbols, utterances, body language, and visual images as a means of discourse. Huckin suggests that primarily we should take the text as an uncritical material, just like ordinary and undiscerning reader (1997). In the second step, put a critical eye on the material and re-read the text by taking it on various levels, such as raising questions about the text, imaging how we could construct in more different ...
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