Foodborne Disease Outbreak Asessment

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Foodborne Disease Outbreak Assessment

Foodborne Disease Outbreak Assessment

Question 1

?         Outbreak

?          Epidemic

?          Cluster


Question 2

Case enquiry (outcome variable)

?         Cause enquiry (exposure variables)

?         Conduct analytic study (if necessary)

?         Conclusions

?         Control measures

?         Continue surveillance

?         Communicate findings

?         Case investigation

?         Confirm diagnosis

?         Case definition

?         Case finding

?         Case interviews

?         Case recount (person, location, time)

?         Confirm outbreak (R/O possibility, bias, confounding)

?         Cause investigation

?         Known

?         Convergence model

?         Chain form of infection


Clinical Description

The onset of sickness in all situations was acute, distinuished chiefly by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. None of the sick individuals described having an increased temperature; all retrieved inside 24 to 30 hours. Approximately 20% of the sick individuals travelled to physicians. No fecal specimens were got for bacteriologic written check (Gross, 1976).


Question 3

?         Infectious

?         Bacterial (including toxins)

?         Viral

?         Parasitic

?         Non-infectious

?         Marine toxins

?         Fungal toxins

?         Chemical contaminants


Gastroenteritis (viral, nourishment poisoning)

?         Non-inflammatory diarrhea (any pathogen)

?         Inflammatory diarrhea (Shigella, etc)

?         Persistent diarrhea (E. histolytica, G. lamblia)

?         Neurologic manifestations (Botulism)

?         Systemic sickness (Listeria, Brucella, hepatitis A)


Question 4

Modes of transmission

?         Contact

?         Direct (touch, kissing, sex)

?         Droplet and respiratory secretions

?         Indirect (intermediate object, generally inanimate)

?         Vertical transmission (in utero, at birth, breast milk)

?         Common vehicle

?         Iingestion, instrumentation, infusion

?         Airborne (droplet nuclei, dust)

?         Vector-borne (mechanical, biologic)


Modes of transmission (alternative classification)

?         Direct

?         Direct communicate (kissing, skin-to-skin, sexy intercourse)

?         Droplet spread

?         Vertical transmission

?         Indirect

?         Airborne (dust, droplet nuclei)

?         Vehicle-borne (food, water, dirt, bio merchandise, fomites)

?         Vector-borne (mechanical, biologic)


Question 5


?         Exposure evaluation (causes)

?         Outcome evaluation (case)

?         Other variables

?         Administrative information


Questionnaire: Exposure evaluation (causes)

?         Known

?         Convergence form (agent, owner, environment)

?         Chain model

?         Natural annals of contamination & disease

?         Basic and productive reproductive number

?         Conditional contamination rate

?         Suspected (testable hypotheses developed from case enquiry & renowned causes) Specific to Oswego outbreak:

?         What was consumed at picnic, how much, when

?         Foods consumed before and after picnic (but before illness)

?         Activities (other than picnic) that ...
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