(in Continuation Of Chapter Two)

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(In Continuation of Chapter Two)

Book Analysis: Adriana Faranda "Il volo della farfalla"? Laura Brghetti "Il prigioniero"? Barbara Balzerani "Compagna luna"

Leaving terrorism behind can mean either renouncing the use of weapons or abandoning the organisation - two events which rarely coincide. The first? often linked to arrest? does not in itself mean giving up membership of an organisation. Moreover? the different positions taken as regards a specific organisation and the armed struggle need to be distinguished: in the context of frequent sectarianism and isolation? departure from one group does not necessarily precede moving away from the armed struggle as a whole but rather recruitment to or creation of another underground organisation.

Forms of abandonment have often been linked to types of previous commitment? both as regards the individual position and the characteristics of a group. In general? the greater the price of admission? the greater the price? be it material and/or psychological? of defection. Participation levels in terrorist groups are certainly very varied? as are the psychological and material price and the intensity of commitment. For many? support for underground groups was less binding? from both a material and psychological point of view? than many stereotypes of "professional terrorists" lead one to believe. In the case of left-wing terrorism in Italy? for example? only 11 % of activists out of the more than 1 000 I studied during earlier research were in hiding

At macro level? it can be observed that careers within political organisations are certainly influenced by external environmental conditions that represent opportunities for and constrains upon individual careers. Firstly? environmental circumstances have a bearing on the calculation of the costs and material individual advantages that? according to rational choice approaches represent the main motives for collective action. On the other hand? for those who believe that political activity is motivated by achieving the common good? environmental conditions have a bearing on the expectations of the efficiency of one's behaviour. Abandonment of a peace movement in the Netherlands in the second half of the 1980s was therefore explained by? amongst other things? the clear inability of the protest not only to have a bearing on decisions to deploy nuclear Nato missiles? but also to bring about electoral losses for the parties that had supported it. In particular as regards activist careers? the mixture of repression and facilitation? typical of various regimes? which could influence not only the perception of the risks of radical action but also of possible alternatives? has been studied.

In the case of armed groups? exit strategies are certainly influenced by the efficiency of repression? but they are also influenced by the offer of conversion opportunities. In analysis of terrorism careers? the environment has been studied particularly as regards repression policies which? in an assumption of rational choice? should increase the individual price of participation in underground activities. However? it has been observed that repression in itself does not lead to abandoning action. If repression is perceived as being too 'hard'? it can perversely create feelings ...
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