Leadership In Uk Muslims Schools

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Leadership in UK Muslims schools





2.1 Introduction4

2.2 Leadership Research4

2.2.1 Meaning and Definition of Leadership6

2.2.2 Trait versus Procedure in Leadership11

2.2.3 Assigned Leadership and Emergent Leadership12

2.2.4 Relationship between Leadership and Power13 Leadership and Coercion14

2.2.5 Relationship between Leadership and Management15

2.3 Underpinning Theories on Leadership18

2.3.1 Trait Theories19

2.3.2 Behavioural Theories24 The Hawthorne Studies26 The Iowa Studies27 The Ohio State Studies29 The University of Michigan Studies31 The Managerial Grid34

2.3.3 Contingency Theories39 Fiedler's Contingency Model40 Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Theory43 Leader Member Exchange Model (Vertical Dyad Exchange Model)46 House's Path-Goal Theory47 Leader Participation Model50

2.3.4 Contemporary Approaches to Leadership51 Servant Leadership51 Transformational and Transactional Leadership57 Attribution Theory of Leadership64 Charismatic Leadership Theory65 Visionary Leadership66 Emotional Intelligence Leadership Theory67 Educational Leadership Theory69 Instructional Leadership71

2.5 The Importance of Leadership in Islam74

2.6 Islamic Education and Schools Philosophy75

2.6.1 Islamic Beliefs and Practices75

2.6.2 The Educational Philosophy in Islam77

2.6.3 Educational Institutions in Islam78

2.6.4 The Role of Islamic Schools in Islam79

2.7 Differences in Leadership Practices in Western and Islamic Countries80

2.7.1 Power-Influence Approach80

2.7.2 Trait Approach81

2.7.3 Situational Leadership Approach82

2.8 Leadership Approaches and Strategies in Muslim Schools in United Kingdom86

2.8.1 Muslim Schools in UK - Profile and Challenges87

2.8.2 Leadership Practices in UK Islamic Schools97

2.8.3 Leadership Strategy Adoption in UK Muslim Schools111




2.1 Introduction

This chapter introduces the phenomenon of leadership and its associations with power, management and coercion. The concept of spiritual leadership and the models of spirituality are discussed. In addition, the review addresses leadership styles and the difference between the western and Islamic leadership. Further discussion is carried out explaining the various characteristics, principles and qualities of Islamic leaders. After that this review looks at leadership in business and the importance of organisational culture within the leadership context. Furthermore, an overview of educational leadership and Islamic educational philosophy are given. Finally, the review looks at leadership practices in UK Islamic schools and the challenges faced by them followed by an analysis of leadership strategy adoption in UK Muslim schools.

2.2 Leadership Research

Leadership research is continually changing and is currently going through a new phase of development. Contemporary organisations have evolved into extremely complex structures because of the necessity to adapt to vigorous environmental conditions (Weber, 2013; Clark & Murray, 2013; Ehrhart, 2012; Hoyt, 2013; Ray, 2012; Laskier, Reguer & Saadoun, 2003; Riley, 2013). Leadership positions are established within workplaces to enable organisational subunits to achieve the purposes for which they were set-up within the larger system (Pierce and Newstrom, 2011). Organisational purpose is operationalized as a direction for collective action. Leadership processes are directed at defining, establishing, identifying, or translating this direction for their followers and facilitating or enabling the organisational processes that should result in the achievement of this purpose (Rosette and Tost, 2010; Caldwell and Dixon, 2010). Organisational purpose and direction becomes defined in many ways, including through mission, vision, strategy, goals, plans, and tasks. The task of leadership is closely tied to the continual development and attainment of these organisational goals (West, Jackson, Harris & Hopkins, 2013; Von Krogh, Nonaka & Rechsteiner, 2012; Leithwood & Sun, ...
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