Molecule Formation & Modification

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Formation and Modification of a Molecule through Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Body System

Formation and Modification of a Molecule through Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Body System


Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi body system are cell organelles, which play a vital role in metabolic activities going on in a cell. Metabolism is the essential process of our body. It starts from birth, and ends when the person dies. Metabolism activity decides the nature of the substance, either it is nutritious or poisonous. If it gets out of order, the immunity gets disturbed and thus spoils the whole body system. Endoplasmic reticulum provides a platform for protein synthesis while Golgi body system modifies the protein molecules and sends them to targeted locations (Harris & Cardelli, n.d).


Formation of a Molecule through Endoplasmic Reticulum

It is a network of flattened sacs and branching tubules extending throughout the cytoplasm in plant and animal cells and is adjacently connected to the nuclear membrane. The network is interconnected in terms of a single continuous membrane, which is extremely convoluted with complex arrangement of lumen. Lumen is the internal space of the membrane which uses more than 10 percent of the volume of the cell. This membrane mediates the transfer of selective molecules between the cytoplasm and lumen, together with providing transfer between the nucleus and cytoplasm (Davidson, 2004).

Endoplasmic Reticulum has two different morphological forms. The first form is “smooth endoplasmic reticulum” whose primary function is to serve as a platform for the synthesis of lipids, carbohydrates metabolism, and the detoxification of drugs and other toxins. The participating tissues and organs are highly enriched in smooth ER, like Liver. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum plays a vital role in those cells in which the metabolic activities are based on the formation of lipids, carbohydrates. All the process of correct formation of carbohydrates and fats is done in smooth ER, so the cell function in certain organs depends mostly on smooth ER mechanism. Apart from fats, the smooth ER also monitors the contraction of muscles. Smooth ER stores calcium and thus keeps a check on the proper functioninf of muscles (Davidson, 2004).

The second form is “rough endoplasmic reticulum”. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is a bunch of coverings and is located very close to the nucleus of the cell. Its rough surface is due to the covering of ribosomes that are involved in synthesis of protein. Small vesicles pinch off the surface and ...
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