In the health care field, attaining health objectives in a population depends to a large extent on the provision of valuable, efficient, accessible, viable and high-quality services. The health workforce present in sufficient numbers and appropriately allocates across different occupations. The geographical regions is arguably the most important input in a distinctive production process. It has a strong impact on overall health system performance.
Motivation and Healthcare
In the health care field, attaining health objectives in a population depends to a large extent on the provision of essential, efficient, accessible, viable and high-quality services. The health workforce present in sufficient numbers and appropriately allocated across different occupations. Motivation can play an integral role in many of the compelling challenges facing healthcare today. In this area, the task of motivation exacerbated by i) the nature of the economic relationship between those using the system and the system itself (physicians, patients and hospitals) and ii) the heterogeneity of the workforce to be managed. Health organizations faced with external pressures that cannot be effectively met without appropriate adjustments to the workforce.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
In 1943, Abraham Maslow developed one of the earliest theories of human motivation, commonly referred to as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. In his masterly article "A Theory of Human Motivation", Maslow utilized the term "prepotent" and within the context of his theory defined it as,"that in the human being who is missing everything in life in an extreme fashion. It is most likely that the major motivation would be the physiological needs rather than any others" (Maslow, 1943, p 5). Whittington and Evans (2005), referring to that same article, stated that Maslow presented a "prepotent hierarchy in which at least five sets of needs compose the framework" (p.114). These five sets of needs were divided into two categories: basic needs and higher-order needs. The most basic human needs, represented by food, water, shelter, and safety, considered essential for human existence.
Higher-order needs are those associated with social activities, esteem building, and self-actualization or constant self-improvement. Elaborating further on this theory, Whittington and Evans (2005) stated that, "each of these needs at all times, although one deficient set dominates the at any one time and circumstance" (p.114). The motivation experienced by humans, to fulfill these needs either derives from internal or external factors. People who experience internal motivation are influenced by factors that cause a sense of accomplishment and pleasure, while externally motivated people are commonly influenced by factors controlled by others, such as money and praise (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Maslow's hierarchy is commonly displayed in a pyramid fashion, with the basic needs at the bottom, indicating and the higher needs at the top. The needs were depicted in this way, to show the significance of each need on others, with the most important and broadest category being the physiological needs at the base (Redmond, 2010).
The Basic-Order Needs
1. Physiological Needs - The first level represents basic needs that are physiologically necessary ...