Pedagogy Of Science

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Pedagogy of Science

Pedagogy of Science


Schools play a vital role in the education system, and determine results in social, economic and educational policies. The pressure on governments and schools is to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and accountability of the system. It depicts that more and more schools are focusing on the students' ability to apply knowledge and skills in key disciplines, and to analyze reason and communicate effectively when they lead to ask, solve and interpret problems in different situations. In addition, schools aim to produce results that are "intangible" such as capacity for the student to work in groups, and to instil values such as respect and civic responsibility. When one wants to know if the school system is performing, and get feedback for improvement, it is essential to have data. To analyze and evaluate students, teachers, institutions and education systems, schools use different techniques. Many are testing samples on all students at pivotal moments and evaluate these students over time. Some countries also use the services of inspection to evaluate teachers and institutions, and practice of teacher evaluation is being spread. Each method involves a range of stakeholders: students, parents, teachers, school authorities, employers and policy makers. However, among these actors, there may be disagreement on how the techniques of analysis and evaluation can or should be used. Some see them primarily as tools to encourage teachers. For others, these activities are primarily designed to support the responsibility and to guide resource allocation and motivate students. This essay outlines the policies that schools can adopt to design assessment methods that enhance students learning and motivate them.

Techniques that Improve Student Motivation

Alternative Assessment

Evaluation and assessment of students in education have brought what refers to as alternative assessment and refers to the new procedures and techniques that can be used within the context of teaching and incorporated into daily classroom activities. Although, there is no single definition of alternative assessment, but this assessment essentially is to gather evidence about how students process and complete real tasks in a particular subject. Unlike conventional assessment, alternative assessments can (Simons et el, 1989, 71):

Focus on documenting the growth of the individual at a certain time, rather than comparing students to each other.

Emphasize the strength of the students rather than weaknesses.

Consider learning styles, language skills, cultural and educational experiences and levels of study.

Critics argue that conventional tests do not give a fixed answer clear and truthful about what students can bring their knowledge. They only allowed to bring to mind, observe the understanding or interpretation of knowledge but do not demonstrate the ability to use knowledge (O'Hear et el, 1993, 26). Furthermore, it is argued that standardized tests fixed response ignore the importance of holistic knowledge and integration of knowledge, not possible to assess the competence of the student's educational goals higher level thinking or what society expects. The challenge is then to develop assessment strategies that respond, in particular, integration and interpretation of knowledge and transfer that knowledge to other ...
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