Omar Bongo was the longest-serving head of state in Africa. He had dominated the west-central African state of Gabon for four decades since coming to power on the death of the country's first President, Leon Mba, in 1967. At 31, he was the youngest head of state in the world at the time. The diminutive Bongo ruled as an autocrat until the early 1990s, thereafter successfully using his control of the levers of power to remain in office despite the nominal multiparty democracy he had been obliged to introduce. Throughout this period Gabon enjoyed relative calm and political stability. This was in large measure due to the country's oil wealth which gave it one of the highest per capita incomes in the region, and to strong foreign support, especially from France.
In Gabon, the country is experiencing a situation of latent political tension, born of a lack of institutional consistencies and confusion of the legal framework in which the presidential election was held early in 2009. The holdup election that has characterized this election and the process of confiscation of power by a clan, gives rise to resentment causing a decline in identity politics. They favor political affiliation at the expense of ethnic citizenship. Many Gabonese find them engaged in political debate at a bias of allegiance to charismatic political leader of their ethnicity or region. Activism that emerges left the country in several political blocs according to the ethnicity of the most prominent leaders of the national political scene.
In the West, the nation preceded the state, it must be said that the nation is the element constructor of the state. As against Gabon, the state preceded the nation. Following the independence of former colonies, the developmental theory in place to give birth to these countries has asked the state as the element manufacturer of the Nation. It was expected that the political impetus to the functioning of the state creates a social and political cohesion to hatch a consciousness of national belonging. This construction is a failure. It is explained by the inconsistency of the state to its foundations and its socio-political mode of operation.
Indeed, when the late President Omar Bongo succeeds Leon Mba, his need for the seizure of power led to outlaw and to establish multi-party, the party. He wanted to create a national policy unit, the multi being seen as a source of political divisions. Because political representation could be made on the basis of competitive multiparty politics, President Bongo, acting chief heritage, has assumed the right to appoint the representatives of the people on the basis of co-optation. Chief heritage, so that some ethnic groups feel excluded the country's government, the political system of the single that set up is based on the ethnic balance.
The leaders of each region may show a profile with their ethnicity were appointed to represent in public administration and show support for Omar Bongo, the head of ...