Research Methods

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Research Methods

Research Methods

Answer 1

Hypothesis and Theory

Speaking of the hypothesis, it should be clearly distinguished from the ordinary, the ordinary assumption, because all conjecture, of course, there is speculation, but not every suggestion can be called a hypothesis. Hypothesis is an educated guess in part on the causes, driving forces, the essence (the root properties, patterns of development) of an object (phenomenon, process), which temporarily accepted as true. In other words, a hypothesis is partly justified by knowledge assumption, the probability of which requires further substantiation, verification and validation.

Assumption and speculation may be to some extent subjective, based on an intuitive sense, individual providence, as a hypothesis it is more reasonable assumption, using the accumulated scientific knowledge on a particular subject area and its laws, it extrapolates this knowledge involves the influence of known to the unknown, and vice versa. This, in our opinion, is the scientific hypothesis (Walliman, 2001, 7-15).

In contrast to hypothesis, theory is the highest form of scientific thinking, logically perfect for their time justifying and reflects the system of interrelated facts (objects, phenomena, etc.) in their essential reality, of regular, general and essential properties. A very short definition of the theory is that it is a system of interrelated ideas (concepts, propositions), proof (theorems, definitions), laws and hypotheses.

The theory has the most complex logical structure, which is understandable: it reflects a complex system and therefore are the elements of the theory of everything is already known, previously considered a form of thought, including the hypothesis. Can be identified as elements of the theory of a set of principles (axioms, postulates), laws, definitions (theorems), the categories to reflect a particular subject area. a system of facts which adequately or appropriately with respect to the elements affect the theory etc.

Since the theory, as a form of scientific thinking has not yet entered a common part of the content of textbooks and manuals on traditional logic, because it has not received sufficient rationale for this bill, because it is still being debated, it will do just an indication of the theory, without detailed consideration .

Theory is mainly divided into public and private (special), deductive (a mathematical, axiomatic) and descriptive (inductive). The unit is almost the same unit of hypotheses. The theory, as a hypothesis, and its formation takes place in different phases, periods, stages, and sometimes much longer than in the hypothesis. In the same way the theory has formed tends to stability, isolation and conservatism (Stephens, 1946, 80-677).

Deduction and Induction

Induction refers to the movement of thought that goes from particular facts to general statements. This implies a shift from the results of observations or experiments (which always refer to a limited number of cases) the presentation of hypotheses, laws and theories that include not only the cases of those who left, but others of the same class ie generalizes results (but this generalization is not mechanical, is based on existing theoretical formulations in science respectively) and in doing so is an improvement, a leap in knowledge by not ...
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