Read Complete Research Material


From Alchemy to Chemistry- Evolution of Modern Science

From Alchemy to Chemistry- Evolution of Modern Science


You cannot make a clear distinction between the times when alchemy became chemistry research. Every branch of applied knowledge is a science, relying on the one hand, to experiment, but on the other - on the theoretical principles, confirmed by experimental data. To name a few names who have left a bright trace in the transitional period of development of chemistry.


The activities of the British scientists Robert Boyle (1627 ... 1719) and Isaac Newton (1649 ... 1727) laid the foundation of scientific chemistry, although the two scientists shared the views of the alchemists have the opportunity to acquire gold from base metals (Greenberg, 2007, pp. 145).

Boyle was born in Ireland in an aristocratic family and received a broad education, studying science, and medicine, ancient languages, interested in the history of religion. In 1661 Boyle published a book in English, which he does not sign his own name, and published under the title "Chemist-skeptic." From now on, even disappears, the term "alchemist," and with a new name and new content appears, Boyle is making fundamental changes in the understanding of simple principles of the ancients. A simple body (element) postulated material substance is not biodegradable in chemical analysis, "I mean by some of the original elements, or simple, it is unmixed body that does not consist of any other bodies or from each other, and are the constituent parts of which are directly stacked all fully mixed (ie, complex) of the body and to which complex eventually disintegrate.”

The task now is chemistry discovery of new simple bodies and the establishment of their numbers. In the paper "Mathematical Principles of natural philosophy," Newton writes that "the amount of matter (mass) is a measure of substance shall be proportional to its density and volume. This is the same amount in the future, and mean by the word "body" (or mass). "

The most important events of the scientific life of the middle of the XVII - early XVIII century were the organization of scientific societies. To some extent these commonwealths were universities that existed in Western Europe since the XII century, where at first studied theology, law and legal medicine, but the scholastic spirit and reverence for authorities over the centuries hindered the study of exact sciences. In 1649 at the initiative of Boyle and his friends in London was founded by the Royal Scientific Society at the British Academy of Sciences. In the charter of the company was told that it will not recognize any of the hypotheses, systems, doctrines of natural philosophy, offered or recognized by ancient or modern philosophers, but to experience and discuss all views, not one of them taking up until after mature deliberation and other evidence given by properly designed experiments will not be proven without a doubt the truth of each situation. Academy of Sciences appeared in Paris (1666), Berlin (1700), Vienna (1700), St. Petersburg (1725), and Stockholm ...