Surface Pollution

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Surface Pollution

Surface Pollution


What causes pollution? The main sources of contamination include: bacteria (and other micro-organisms present in a large amount), chemical (organic and inorganic materials present in the form of a variety of solutions, colloids and suspensions). The chemical composition of water is determined by natural factor (decomposition forming part of the soil and rocks, development and death of aquatic organisms), anthropogenic factor. The most common anthropogenic pollution of surface waters are pesticides and surfactants, phenols, heavy metals (lead, chromium, copper, cadmium, mercury, and zinc), hydrocarbons that make up petroleum, chlorinated biphenyl derivatives and the so-called heated water. Pollution is very harmful for surface waters characterized by slight movement and stagnant water. The big drawback of anthropogenic contaminants is that many toxic to aquatic organisms. The largest amount of pollution enters the water with sewage. Other important sources of pollution include water and land transport, pesticides and fertilizers, municipal and industrial waste.

Water is the major resource for people and the environment. Approximately 70% of the Earth surface is covered by water. We are continuously wasting, polluting the available fresh water and not realizing its importance. The availability of fresh water should be given importance, as one of every six person is access to clean and pure water. Water pollution is an uprising issue prevailing in this 21st century. Water pollution is affecting the drinking water, rivers, lakes and oceans (Doney, 2006, pp. 74). This issue is prevailing worldwide. Water pollution is harming the environment and human health (Mitchell, 2001, pp.54). The sources for water pollution vary region to region. Water pollution can come from a single source and can be caused by a number of sources. The affect of pollution vary in nature. Sometimes it can affect the area miles & miles away from the source. There are various types of water pollution i.e. damage to surface water, oxygen depleting, damage via chemicals, microbiological, groundwater and suspended matter. The causes of water pollution vary from each other. Common causes of water pollution are agriculture runoff due to highly chemicals, Strom off water with oil and petroleum wastes, leaking of sewer lines containing contaminated solvents, harmful mining waste, and animal waste in the water, dumping of industrial waste into the water, fossil fuels and foundries are few common yet quite hazardous causes of water pollution these days.

In fact, over half of the world's rivers are polluted and over one and a half billion people lack accesses to safe drinking water. One hundred twenty million people are constantly getting sick from polluted water. The fact says that five million people die every year, and six thousand children are dying every day. Thus, it can be said that polluted water is a serious threat to human health (Hutton, 2004, pp. 3-24).

Impact on Ecosystems

Pollution affects all oceans, but the pollution of coastal waters is higher than in the open ocean, because of the much larger number of sources: from the coastal industrial installations to the heavy traffic of ships (Hamblin, 2008, ...
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