The Sun

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The Sun


In this research we try to discover the insight of “Sun” in a holistic perspective. The key heart of the study is on “Sun” and its composition. The research also examines various characteristics of “Sun” and tries to measure its effect. Lastly the research illustrates a variety of scientific factors of the “Sun” and tries to describe the overall effect of it.

Table of Contents


Physical Properties of the Sun1

The Interior of the Sun3

Solar Core4

Solar Atmosphere5

Sun's Surface5


The Sun


The Sun is an average star that sits very close to Earth, a mere eight light minutes away, and 300,000 times closer than the next closest star, Alpha Centauri, which is located 4.3 light-years distant. It is a glowing ball of gas held together by its own gravity and powered by nuclear fusion in its core. Because of its proximity and fairly average characteristics, the Sun has been extensively studied and forms the basis for many of the concepts and models about other stars in the universe. The Sun is also the only source of light and the main source of heat for life on Earth.

Physical Properties of the Sun

The Sun contains no solid material, but the apparent surface visible as a glowing solar disk is known as the photosphere. Above the photosphere is the Sun's lower atmosphere, called the chromospheres, and extending far past that is the corona, an outer atmosphere (visible during eclipses) that gradually merges into the solar wind and consists of particles that flow through the whole solar system. Extending below the photosphere toward the deep interior of the Sun are three more main zones. The region just below the photosphere is called the convection zone, where material is in constant motion. The solar interior has two main parts. The center of the Sun consists of the solar core, about 124,000 miles (200,000 km) in diameter, where nuclear fusion reactions burning hydrogen into helium power the entire Sun, generating light and heat for the whole solar system. Between the solar core and extending to the base of the convection zone is the radiation zone, a second interior zone, about 186,000 miles (300,000 km) thick, where the main heat transfer process is radioactive (Aller, 1968).

The Sun has a diameter of 870,000 miles (1.4 million km) to the top of the photosphere, about 100 times the diameter of the Earth. The mass of the Sun is about 300,000 times that of Earth, approximately 4.3 × 1030 pounds (2.0 × 1030 kg). The table "Sun Reference Data" lists these and other basic properties of the Sun. The Sun rotates at different velocities at the poles and the equator, spinning faster at the equator than the poles in a manner similar to the gaseous Jovian planets. The temperature at the top of the photosphere is estimated to be 9,932°F (5,500°C) (Willson, 1991).

Sun Reference data

One of the most important properties of the Sun is that it radiates energy into space, providing the energy to drive surface processes and provide conditions necessary for life on ...
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