Theory Of Copernican

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Kuhn and Popper Views



With being deeply rooted at the beginning in the minds of the pre-Socratic era, the Copernican Revolution exemplifies a time of scientific discoveries and crisis. It has witness and lot of scientific inventions as well as episodes of normal sciences. It mainly includes Ptolemaic planetary model and also the Copernican model. This paper has outlined a few key concepts of this revolution, which had appeared as a solution to the planetary problem according to the philosophical arguments of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn. The structure of the Copernican Revolution is argued to be in chronology which further displayed what is defined by Kuhn as periods of sciences which are normal by the paradigm shift discoveries. However, with all due respect of the philosophy of Popper which is based on the logic of scientific discoveries that highlights the devaluation of the Ptolemaic Theory and a situation of scientific crisis was caused by continued versions of Ptolemaic models.

The perspectives of Kuhn regarding the classification and the practice of the way that science has been done and how it should be done to produce good theories is defined. Whereas Popper proposed the theory of Falsification, which creates another criterion that would consider the acceptance and rejection of any scientific theory. The main aim of this paper is to view both Karl's and Kuhn's theory and classify different episodes in the development of Copernican Revolution and term it as either good or bad science. The starting of the discussion section provides a briefing regarding the historical chain of events that cause the Copernican Revolution including the conflict of both the theories, the Two-Sphere and Ptolemaic models of the cosmos.


In light of the philosophical arguments, normal sciences and scientific revolution's concept which were bought forward by Thomas Kuhn are discussed first in relation to the Revolution of Copernican. This argument is then followed by Popper's theory of falsifications. Later on the strengths and weaknesses of the Copernicus' model itself are stated. The Problems of planets is the basic disagreement between theory and observation, making the Copernican model of the astronomy of planets formation necessary. Initially, according to Greek astronomers there were supposed to be seven planets including Sun, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Mercury, Venus and Saturn.

As the placement of the Earth was at the center, the motion and the location of all the planets were fit according to the two-sphere model of the cosmos. With respect to the outer sphere, the planets were highlighted as lying on circles which were concentric with the sense of motion being opposite. But very soon, the Greek intellectuals realized the irregularities in the motion of the planets. Thus, the Ptolemaic model arose. The planetary motion's principle was broken down in to three parts. The first was that all the planets displayed a reverse motion while travelling eastwardly in the sky. However, figure 2 shows Mars deteriorating between the months of June and ...
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