Urban Expansion

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Urban Expansion




Pros and Cons of Urbanization5

Urban Sustainability6

Urban Land Issues7

Ethics of Sustainability7

Ethical Role of Government8

Case of Kenya9

Proposed Solutions12



Evaluation Chart17

Urban Expansion


The urban world at the dawn of the 21st century has assumed special importance for two principal reasons. First, the world's population has recently crossed the threshold from being more rural to being more urban. In absolute terms and according to UN estimates, this means that of the world's population of approximately 6.8 billion, approximately 3.5 billion people (or 51%) are living in urban settings. To put this notion in historical context, consider that 58 years earlier only 29% of the world population lived in cities. The projection for 2050 is 70%. Second, a dramatic change in the urban hierarchy is taking place as the large cities variously termed global cities, world cities, megacities, and so on are beginning to dominate the urban landscape. Although urbanization is occurring around the globe, there are significant differences in this process; some of the global trends are noted here. The urban infrastructure development has become one of today's most major challenges. In fact, in both developed and developing countries, the rulers of the cities are working to develop a series of essential infrastructure to enable growth; however in some cases many issues are inevitable. The systems like transportation systems, more eco-efficient networks, safe drinking water and social infrastructure are essential for a smooth transition in the process of urbanization.



Urbanization can be defined as the direct concentration of population in the urban space. In order to understand the urbanization process, the city becomes a narrative device. The pace of urbanization has been changing continuously due to the conscious and direct efforts on the part of the humans. It does not depend on the outcome of a natural arrangement of the things. Urbanization helps people to move from rural to urban habitations, and to successfully shift people from agricultural occupations to industrial businesses. Urbanization creates spaces that immensely vary from the models of rural areas that are based on the networks of the traditions and kinship. The fast-moving life of the city and the militant existence of the urban habitants make it quite tough to associate with the community (Susan, 2002).

Along with urbanization, other changes are taking place concomitantly: The rural-urban and interurban mobility of population is accelerating, the traditional rural-urban dichotomy is blurring, and research and technological innovations in economic development and transportation along with the relaxation of political-institutional barriers are growing. Consequently, a diversified and unprecedented mix of urban phenomena, urbanization processes, and urban patterns in global and regional scales is emerging, giving rise to complex issues, problems, and prospects. The concentration of urban populations is manifested in many forms and functions both historically, through cyclical changes (e.g., urbanization, de-urbanization, and re-urbanization), and spatially, from the monocentric, core-oriented settlements to the polycentric, peripherally focused patterns.

Prior to around 1850, most American families lived on farms. On the farm, children were an economic asset because they enlarged the “work force” for what was essentially a family-owned, family-operated ...
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