Water Pollution

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Water Pollution

Water Pollution


Pollution of water may be in different forms: chemical, bacteriological and also, thermal pollution, and water or water bodies may be soft, brackish or salt, ground or surface. It may even be the rain or dew, snow or polar ice.

It can also involve interfaces, including estuaries, wetlands and in particular their Sediments that can absorb and release certain pollutants. Sediments can be highly polluted and retain traces of old pollution (there are sometimes many lead shot and fishing where these activities are performed).

The fight against this pollution is more difficult than is at the bottom of water, or diluted in water is often invisible, and some toxic infiltrated into the soil often produce their effect after a long time and that many pollutants act in synergy complex. An accidental spill of 4000 liters of carbon tetrachloride, which occurred close to Erstein in 1970 passed almost unnoticed at the time, twenty years later led to contamination of groundwater and wells dug seven kilometers downstream. Nitrates can reach some ground after several decades (Hutton, 2004).

In Europe, Directive 2000/60/EC of 23 October 2000 is the framework for the field of water. It reminds and reinforces the Community guidelines for the condition of aquatic ecosystems. Article 16 seeks to strengthen the protection of the aquatic environment through specific measures designed to progressively reduce discharges, emissions and losses of priority substances and the cessation or phasing out emissions, discharges and losses of priority hazardous substances Water States must decline this directive into national law.

In fact, over half the world's rivers are polluted and over one and a half billion people lack accesses to safe drinking water. One hundred twenty million people are constantly sick from the water. Five million people die every year, every day, and six thousand children. Polluted water is a serious threat to human health.

If the majority of victims are in Africa and Asia, developed countries are far from immune. In these countries, the mains drainage and pension systems have effectively reduced the pollution of surface waters. However, groundwater is, unbeknownst to all, more and more polluted and endangered. However, this groundwater drinking water supply of two billion people, including the 2/3 of the European and 1/3 of Americans. Our ground water is generally considered pure, but much of this water is actually seriously polluted by wastes that do not pass all through the sewers. This increases pollution because these waters are renewed very slowly and, therefore, increases pollution every day (Hutton, 2004).

Pollution from Human Waste

These are the human wastes that are the leading cause of pollution of fresh water. In developing countries, 95% of domestic sewage and 75% of industrial wastes are dumped in rivers. Even in industrialized countries, one third of human waste and millions of tons of animal waste spilled into the fields, or to fertilize, or simply to get rid of. We do not know, but even in the U.S., 900,000 people suffer from gastric diseases due to pollution from contaminated water in ...
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