Wireless Sensor Networks (Wsn)

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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)


In this paper, we present functions of Wireless Sensor Networks which are sensation devices for networking. We also discuss their functions, advantages and disadvantages. There is also a discussion on Speed Real-time communication protocol and its types. There are also certain challenges using Wireless Sensor Networks which can be overcome to see their solutions as discussed in this paper.

Table of Contents



Data Dissemination in WSN6

Performance Guarantees6


Design Goals8

Stateless Architecture8

Real Time Guarantees8

Challenges faced by Wireless Sensor Networks10

Key Management11

Securing routing of WSN11

Prevention of Denial of Service12


Hybrid Key-based Protocol12

RT Mac Solutions13

Full distributed Certificate authority13

Pebble nets13



Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)


Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is the networks which are self-organized. The nodes of WSN are capable of sensing, gathering, processing and communicating data. It is always seen, that a typical WSN contains a large number of nodes. When there are a large number of nodes, then it helps in sensing at a extraordinary level, both permanently and temporarily. Wireless Sensor Network always plays a vital role in achieving the targets of organizations. Due to its infrastructure, and data collection abilities with other external networks, it is used everywhere in houses, factories and farms.



Wireless Sensor Networks are also referred to as Real-Time Wireless Sensor Network when they provide bounded delay guarantees on packet delivery. The majority of WSN applications are real-time applications. For instance, there is a wireless sensor network, which help in detection of a movement of any human, animal and other object, nodes of WSN easily detects it. It also monitors the movement of an object. It consists of large number of nodes.When base-station receives data from the network it will take some action. The actions can be shown on camera and alert guards or other actions. After the movement of the object from the area, if there is the detection of messages in base-station then, camera will not able to take the picture of the moved object. We can see the application of WSN in monitoring the health of senior citizens and patients. The nodes are connected to the health care provider through an external network. The health-care provider server collects data from WSN and uses it as alarm and alerts health care personnel upon alarm detection (Almes, G. T., Lazowska, E. D., I, 1979). These alarms should work in case of emergencies otherwise; doctors would not be able to save the patient's lives.

There are many problems and challenges using WSN which should be overcome to utilize its benefits. As it is wireless, that is why there is a shared medium for communication. There is a need of guaranteed bandwidth over multiple hops, which are provided by distributed medium access control (MAC) protocol. This bounded latency is enabling to give end-to-end delivery in a first step. The support of real-time should be achieved in low power in order to limit interference and conserve energy. Scalability of solutions is necessary as there is a large number of nodes present in WSN.

There are many differences between sensor and ad-hoc networks such as increase number of nodes, ...
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