Adult Add/Adhd

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Literature Review

Since 1987, very few people were aware of the attention deficit disorder which is also referred as attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder or ADD/ADHD. In 1987, a group has been founded by ADD/ADHD affected patients, and the main purpose of this group foundation was to assist the families of such people and find out the ways of getting familiar with the frustration and sense of isolation (Nylander 2009). The movement of this group became popular and almost after 13 years, this group has become the top non-profit national organisation in order to protect adults and children with AD/HD. Victims of AD/HD disease are increasing day by day, and this disease was becoming a problem. Therefore, the association took positive steps in order to prevent the spread of this disease.

It seems that the presence of co morbidities (including conduct disorder), family history of ADD / ADHD and lack of family support are risk factors for this persistence. Among the possible means of compensation, we find thoroughness, perfectionism, respect careful scheduling, rigidity in social relations and family, but also the use of cannabis and alcohol (Michael 2009). Dr. Peter Oswald (Erasmus Hospital) recalled that the AD / HD are not due to a single cause.

There is abundant research on the negative influences ADD/ADHD has on academic achievement and psycho-social functioning; however, there is a dearth of research on gifted individuals with ADD/ADHD (FRANCES 2009). Talent development and skilled research have found both environmental catalysts, such as a supportive environment, and internal characteristics. These characteristics are the opposite of the characteristics of an individual with ADD/ADHD (i.e. external locus of control, lack of persistence). The effects of the confluence of these catalysts on the talent development for gifted individuals with ADD/ADHD are less known (Peter 2009). The participants of this study were one female and three male college graduates, ages 27-36 years-old, from middle-class families from diverse communities.

ADD/ADHD is a behavioral disorder that includes a diverse assortment of symptoms, with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity being the most common. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV- Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) estimates the incidence of ADD/ADHD in adults to be 3% - 5%, with a higher incidence in males than females. Other studies have estimated the incidence to be from 12% to 24%. The reasons for the inconsistencies in reported rates of the prevalence of ADD/ADHD include the variety of professionals who diagnose the disorder, from pediatricians to mental health professionals, and the various standards they use to make their diagnosis. Further complications include the lack of a valid measure for gathering parent or teacher data, co morbidity with other disorders, reported to be present in 80.4% of diagnosed ADD/ADHD cases, and the subjectivity of the clinical definition of the disorder (Nylander 2009). The clinical definition of ADD/ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR, will be used for the purposes of this study. According to the DSM-IV-TR, there are four subtypes of ADD/ADHD: (1) Predominately Inattentive Type; (2) Predominately Hyperactive/Impulsive Type; ...
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