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African Americans are a people whose ancestors are from Africa. During the last decade of the 19th century, racial violence and racial discrimination dramatically increased against African Americans. African Americans were not allowed to anything white people considered to be for “whites only”. They could not join any “white” organizations, attend any “white” schools, eat at “white” restaurants, or work at “white” establishments. Voting rights were stripped away, economic opportunities were denied, and suitable housing was not an option for them. In some areas in the South, African Americans couldn't even worship at their own church or attend their own schools. African Americans were kept in a state of illiteracy and treated as if they were inferior to whites. Life conditions were hard in the South for whites, new immigrants, and former slaves; that brought about the Great Migration to the Northern states (Bennett, 2003). African Americans went to the North searching for a promising life full of freedom, equality, and prosperity.

Thesis Statement

Since the US was founded, African Americans have struggled hard to get their civil and political rights in the country.


In the early 20th century, African Americans were still struggling for equality among whites in the workplace, education, income status, and social class. Many people are still being passed over for promotions because they are not what corporate America wants. Women have been pushed to the back of the line and given the lowest paying position resulting in double jeopardy (the subordinate status twice defined, as experienced by women of color) (Schaefer 2006). The glass ceiling, glass walls, and glass escalator (barriers that prevent the promotion of a qualified worker because of gender or race) effect has made an impact in the workplace with African American men and women as well. Whites have been given the best of everything over African Americans- positions, salary, housing, education, and political power. To help fight for change, affirmative action was created. Affirmative action (positive efforts to recruit subordinate group members, including women, for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities) (Franklin and Alfred, 2000), gave power back to the African American people. Today, African Americans have broken down barriers and achieved great success in several areas of life such as buying houses, getting college educations, obtaining high paying jobs, and joining distinguished groups. Not all discriminatory acts have been abolished completely; African Americans are still facing subtle racist acts against them that they tend to go unreported or unnoticed. As long as people continue to fight for positive change it can be achieved.

Since they had been forced from their homeland they have been treated as if they had no rights or thoughts of their own. They were placed in the status of slaves even though they were human beings too. No matter if they were placed in the minority group by the dominate majority group of white Americans they remind structurally pluralism by keeping to their beliefs and traditions. Before and after slavery African Americans did not receive equal ...
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