In simple terms, birth trauma is the injury caused at the time of birth. However, getting into more complexities, birth trauma can be elaborated as damaging of tissues and organs of a child, caused by mechanical forces during childbirth and holistic response to this damage by the body, accompanied by a violation of the compensatory-adaptive mechanisms.
The study of birth trauma begins in the 16th century and its morphological manifestations of good described in the domestic and foreign literature. Birth trauma is important in the structure of prenatal morbidity and mortality. A revision of the ICD generic traumatic injuries occupies a large proportion. It should also distinguish between the concepts of birth trauma and patrimonial damage, but recent isolate birth traumatic injuries. Birth injury includes any damage during birth (hypoxic, toxic, bio-chemical, infectious, etc.), and the birth trauma includes only a mechanical damage (Church, 2002). Therefore, not any damage to the fetus during labor attributed to birth trauma. For example, damage to the fetal brain during delivery due to premature detachment of the placenta is not a birth injury and brain damage at birth in intrapartum infection this is not a birth injury, but a manifestation of intrauterine infection.
Furthermore, the birth injury mechanical nature belongs to the birth trauma as a pathological process of the disease. Generic swelling bruising, small subperiosteal hemorrhage, bleeding the lines shifts in the configuration of the skull head, intramural hemorrhage, sub capsular hemorrhage of the liver, and so on - is generic traumatic injuries.
Birth injury is a disease that involves the reaction to traumatic birth injury associated with impaired compensatory and adaptive mechanisms of the fetus and newborn, the development of pathological processes (Seng, 2002).
Types of birth defects
Birth injury is differentiated on the spontaneous of normal childbirth occurring (complicated and uncomplicated), and obstetric caused physical actions obstetrician (tongs, traction, manual, hand pressure to the bottom of the uterus to more rapidly advance the head, various manipulations). There is also the concept of maternal birth trauma. The main types of birth trauma are:
Birth trauma - skull and brain, spine,
The internal organs - liver, spleen, adrenal glands, etc.,
Various bone - clavicle, femur, etc.,
The brachial plexus,
The most common traumatic injuries generic skull and the brain, which cannot only lead to death, but also accompanied by the CNS, leading to disability and delay in neuropsychological development (Seng, 2002).
Reasons for birth injury
Disproportion between the head of the child and mother's pelvis
Quick and swift delivery
Abnormal fetal position
Extensor insertion head
Forceps and vacuum extraction of the fetus
Acceleration and induction of labor
Neonatal birth injury refers to damage caused to the fetus or newborn during childbirth due to mechanical factors. In recent years due to the strengthening of the prenatal care and obstetric technology improves, birth trauma, has decreased significantly, but it remains a cause of neonatal death and long-term one of the leading cause of disability, especially at the grass-roots units. Clavicle fractures are the most common form ...