Civilization Of The Middle Ages

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Civilization of the Middle Ages

Civilization of the Middle Ages

Civilization of the middle Ages

Ans 1:

A noble class reliant for its power and position upon the possession of land - or, to be more unquestionable, it's right to collect levies and services from the inhabitants of the land - had appeared over the preceding years, and the community of that hereditary class was growing. As long as the Frankish monarchs had preceded conquering new countries, there were always new localities to circulate to the nobility. Now that expansion had stopped, although, the nobles started to bear from "land-hunger" and started to develop into certain thing different from what they had originally been. They took entire command of the lands they had been nominated to rule in the agencies of enumerate, duke, and margrave and to heal them as individual possessions. They began to demand fee in land for helping one or the other side in the incessant municipal wars.

Even so, they could not extend dividing their countries into lesser and lesser pieces. During the course of the ninth and early tenth centuries, in a process that can be discerned only dimly, the aristocracy of western Europe forsaken the deeply-rooted made-to-order of gavelkind and restored it with primogeniture ("first-born"), a system in which the core of a family's countries was kept intact and passed mechanically to the eldest son.

Such a state will not sustain a navy, so the remnants of the Carolingian domain were easy pickings for sea-borne raiders from Scandinavia (the Vikings) and from North Africa (the Saracens), as well as climbed on raiders from central Asia (the Magyars, or Hungarians). The rulers descended from Charlemagne were unable to defend Europe from these raiders, and it dropped to localized powerful men, such as enumerate Robert of Paris and the dukes of the countries of Germany, to do so. Meanwhile, the nobles began to set up systems of individual alliances to slash down on fighting among themselves and to coordinate their efforts against the raiders.

Ans 2:

The rather vague clues on the dynasty's source, most of it slanted to hurl favorable lightweight on the family, establishes that it arose from the union of two Frankish families, which throughout the sixth years amassed gigantic land holdings and expanded followings in Austrasia, one of the kingdoms that emerged from the partition of the original kingdom of the Franks created by Clovis I (481-511) and his successors. The leaders of these two families, Arnold and Pepin I the Elder of Linden, came into prominence in the first decade of the seventh years as influential figures assisting the Merovingian monarch of Austrasia. These offices provided their holders with opportunities to add to their wealth, their following, and their prestige during the reigns of Chlothar II (584-629) and his son and successor, Dagobert I (623-639).

Pepin II. Following the death of Pepin I in 639 or 640, the family endured a temporary setback producing from an aborted try in 656 of Grimoald, Pepin's son and ...
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