The term “Instructional Design” can be defined as practice of creating a set of experiences and knowledge in a systematic way which makes acquisition of information, knowledge and learning more effective, efficient and engaging. It is also known as instructional design system. This system enables individual, groups and organizations to acquire knowledge easily and also creates an appeal in learning. This system determines the actual or current state of learners and also defines the needs of learners. In instruction design, the objective or final goal of instructions is quite clear. The outcome or objective of instructions can vary, it is possible that the objective can be scientifically measured or only directly observable. There are various kinds of instructional design models which based on development, analysis, implementation and evaluation. It is a fact that the field of instructional design is behavioural and cognitive, historically and traditionally. However, recent studies also follow the approach of constructivism. Researchers and theorists have defined three approaches for instructional design which are behaviourism, cognitivism and constructivism. The definitions of each approach are as below:
Approach of Behaviourism
This approach is based on observable, visible or apparent changes in behaviour. This approach mainly focuses on new and recent behavioural pattern being repeated till it becomes automatic.
Approach of Cognitivism
This approach is based on the thinking and thought process which lies behind the behaviour. This approach focuses on observing the changes in behaviour and then takes these changes in as indicator or pointer of what is happening in the mind of learner.
Approach of constructivism
This approach is based on foundations that human used to construct or build for making our viewpoint for the world. Humans build these foundations on their own experiences and understanding. This approach mainly focuses on making the learner to solve problems in uncertain situations. This approach argued to equip humans in a way that they will take effective and efficient decisions in ambiguous situations. This approach believed that humans should be capable enough to solve problems creatively.
Comparison of Approaches
The behavioural learning revolves around understanding the change in behaviour of learners. It can be viewed as what are specific changes a learner adopt during the course of learning. These changes are related to the behaviour of learners. When a student or learner start learning any particular knowledge and get to know something new which he or she was not aware of prior to learning this knowledge. It is obvious that the learner will try to understand that body of knowledge and try to develop an in-depth analysis. It is a fact that when human understanding new knowledge they used to apply their pre occupied knowledge to understand that new knowledge (Staats et.al, 1996, pp.134). It is possible that their knowledge does not comply with the new knowledge which make an urge in such students to acquire new learning or knowledge. When they strive to change their mind to accept and embrace new learning, there is surely a change in ...