During the period of early modern Western expansion, Asian civilizations were highly diverse. China and Japan were two of the Asian civilizations that were not fundamentally reshaped by the West. The Europeans were eager to influence the Asian civilizations with trade, technology, and missionary activities, although the Europeans were expelled by both countries. Asians weren't interested in converting to Christianity, and none of the goods seemed desirable, especially to the Chinese. Many of the European ideas did not impress the Asians, especially the Chinese and had minimal impact on some of the Asian states such as the Chinese.
During the Ming dynasty, under Emperor Yongle, sent a fleet of Chinese trading ships under admiral Zhenghe through the Strait of Malacca and out into the Indian Ocean. Zhenghe's voyages were the result of Emperor Yongle's curiosity and desire for personal greatness. Yongle was intrigued by the giraffes so he placed them in the imperial zoo and Yongle was seeking to ascertain the truth of rumors that his predecessor, Emperor Jianwen had escaped to Southeast Asia to live in exile. After the death of Emperor Yongle, the Chinese ended the expeditions and developed a policy of isolation.
Evidence of human habitation of the Indian subcontinent, that huge triangular peninsula that is home to modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka, goes back to the Paleolithic period. 1) Its topography has three main features: the Himalayas, which are the world's tallest mountains; the northern planes, which includes the valleys of the Indus and the Ganges; and the Deccan, or southern plateau, with a climate that alternates between long dry spells and the monsoons. 2) Patterns of life during the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods were similar to those found elsewhere. 3) The Urban Revolution began about 2400 BC on the flood plain of the Indus River and its tributaries and cities like Harappa [=huh-RUP-uh]and Mohenjo-Daro were built.
Unfortunately little is known about this civilization, often called Harappan, partly because it disappeared about 1700 BC for reasons unknown and because its language remains undeciphered; its existence was revealed only in the midst of the 19th century (your text says the 1920s), and excavations have been limited. Surviving evidence indicates a sophisticated civilization. Cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro (=the "City of the Dead") had populations of some 35,000, they were laid out according to grid system. Inhabitants lived in windowless baked brick houses built around a central courtyard. These cities also had a citadel, where the public and religious buildings were located, large pools for ritual bathing, granaries for the storage of food, and a complex system of covered drains and sewers. The latter rivaled the engineering skill of the Romans some 2,000 years later.
Character of the Aryan invasion: The Aryans were semi-nomadic warriors who may have entered India about 1800 BC from modern-day Afghanistan by crossing passes in the Hindu Kush. They settled in the Punjab and the Indus Valley. With them came a new language, a new ...